In the last science article, we have learnt the concept of the information paradox. In this article, we shall learn the concept of nuclear energy and the important uses of it.

Nuclear Energy: 

Nuclear Energy is the energy that is present within the nucleus of an atom. An atom is a small unit of matter which makes up everything in the universe. 

Nuclear Energy is useful in creating Electricity. But as the energy is within the atomic nuclei of an atom. Therefore, we need to separate it from atomic nuclei and use it.

The process is extremely difficult, and nuclear power plants are used to split atoms of an element and extract the energy. To extract the energy from the nuclei of the atoms, nuclear fission is done.

Nuclear Fission: 

Nuclear fission is a process in which, the nucleus of a single atom splits into two or more nuclei.

The most commonly used fuel for nuclear energy is Uranium 235. The basic concept of a nuclear reactor working is “Controlled chain reaction.”

Chain Reaction:

A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions in which the reactive or by-product causes additional reactions.

Let us know understand how a nuclear reactor inside a nuclear plant works.

  1. The outer layer of the plant is covered with concrete steel structure and is called containment.
  2. Heavy water or graphite is used as a moderator to control the speed of atoms coming out of the fuel.
  3. The generally used fuel material is uranium—U-235.
  4. Control rods like cadmium, hafnium or boron are used.
  5. A nuclear reactor has a coolant like water or molten salt. The heat from the chain reaction reacts with coolant and produces steam.

Working Of A Nuclear Reactor: Let us understand how a nuclear reactor works.

  • Uranium 235 is filled inside a nuclear reactor.
  • The atoms of uranium collide with a neutron, this released a chained reaction and a huge amount of energy.
  • Control rods like cadmium, hafnium or boron are inserted to absorb the excessive atoms produced by fission. By this, the chain reaction is controlled.
  • The moderator liquid is used to control the speed of atoms and slow down the reaction.
  • The Energy from the fission reacts with coolant and produces steam.
  • The steam is then used to run turbines to produce electricity.

This is how a nuclear reactor works. It is one of the important forms of renewable energy on this planet.

In the last article, we have understood the concept of “Entropy.” In this article, let us understand the concept of the Information paradox

One of the unsolved mystery in science is the “Black Hole Information Paradox.” To understand this, we need to understand a few terms of physics.

Quantum Physics: Quantum physics is the study of matter and energy at its most fundamental level. To know more on quantum physics, click here.


Black Holes: A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing, no particles or even light can escape. To know more on black holes, click here.

Event Horizon: It is the boundary surrounding the region of space of a black hole from which nothing (not even light) can escape.

Hawking’s Radiation: It is thermal radiation black holes emit, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

As we all know, everything in this universe is made of matter. If we divide matter into the smallest particles we get subatomic particles. They are the building blocks of everything in this universe.

Let us take an object, for example, any flammable substance. No matter how much you burn it, the quantum level of the substance remains the same in the universe. It stays in some or the other form.

There is a vital law of physics here ” The total amount of quantum information in the universe must be conserved.” Theoretically, knowledge of that information will help us recreate the substance again.
When an object falls into the black hole, it seems that it leaves the universe.

The object might be in the black hole. Theoretical proofs suggest that the objects quantum information might be present in the event horizon of the black hole. As the black holes’ mass increases by taking in the objects, the area of the black hole. Therefore the event horizon increases.

According to Hawking’s radiation, black holes evaporate gradually over time. Black holes loose mass, as they discard particles from the event horizon. Hawkings radiation shows that the particles that come out from the event horizon are not the same that has entered.

As the black hole evaporates completely, we do not have any information on the particles that have entered the black hole. This is the information paradox of black hole. Till now there is no exact proof for this paradox.

In the last science article, we have understood the concept of Particle Physics. In this article, we will understand the concept of “Entropy” and the Importance of it. 

Entropy: In simple terms, the entropy of a system is the measure of the amount of energy that cannot do work. It is a measurable physical characteristic generally associated with a state of disorder, randomness, or uncertainty in science terms.

The concept of entropy presents a deep insight into the area of natural change for various daily events. Not only in science, but entropy also helps us to understand the day to day events of our life.

The entropy concept was introduced by a German Scientist named “Rudolf Clausius” in the year 1865. Entropy came into existence to tackle a mathematical formulation to explain a body changes through heat transfer between that body and different environments.

Entropy applies to every part of our lives. It is inescapable, and even if we try to ignore it, the result is a breakdown of some kind. Indeed understanding entropy guides to a drastic difference in the way we see the universe.

Entropy also paved the way to one of the most Significant laws of physics. Entropy is one of the vital parts of “Second Law Of Thermodynamics.”

Second Law Of Thermodynamics: The second law states that “The total change in entropy of a system and its surroundings will always increase spontaneously.”

In simple terms, if no energy enters or leaves the system in all energy transfers, the state’s potential energy will always be less than that of the original state.

Applications Of Entropy:

  1. Understanding the surface time contributions of string theory. To learn more about string theory, click here.
  2. Measuring and manipulating the system based on the data gathered by computation in quantum physics. To learn more about quantum physics, click here. 
  3. Understanding the concept of Entropic Gravity to understand the concepts of relativity. To learn more about concepts of relativity, click here.
  4. Studying how dark matter is distributed among galaxies. To learn more about dark matter and dark energy, click here.
  5. Calculating why positrons repel each other in antimatter. To learn more about antimatter, click here.
  6. Studying the laws of thermodynamics on the event horizons of black holes. To learn more about black holes, click here.
  7. Grasping the gravitational properties of exotic properties in wormholes. To learn more about wormholes, click here.
  8. Learning why system leads to disorder in chaos theory. To learn more about chaos theory, click here.
  9. Deriving the concepts of particle position in particle physics. To learn more about particle physics, click here.
  10. Understanding deeply about civilizations on the Kardashev scale. To learn more about the Kardashev scale, click here.
  11. Learning on how a car runs by converting fuel into heat.
  12. To transmit a message via any channel. 
  13. The digestion of food, the digestion, is how food converts to energy for the body.

Thus the concept of entropy is very very important to understand many concepts of physics and real life.

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