In the last science article, we have understood the concept of the Mars Rover. In this article, we will learn the concept of the One-Electron Universe Theory.

One-Electron Universe:

It is the hypothesis that all electrons and positrons are manifestations of a single entity moving backwards and forwards in time. In simple terms, according to this theory, there is only one electron that moves backwards and forward in time. 

By moving and interacting with the past and the future, the electron bounces itself in the past and future. It interacts with itself an infinite number of times and produces an infinite number of electrons.

The basic idea of the one-electron theory is that every single electron in the universe is the one same electron travelling forwards and backwards in time. The idea is a bit crazy! One the other hand, the approach was revolutionary for the time.

Let us understand the history behind this idea.


In the Spring of 1940, one of the famous physicist, John Wheeler called his favourite student Richard P Feynman. Wheeler said that all the electrons have the same charge and mass because they all are the same electron.

Wheeler got this idea because all the electrons have the same charge and identical mass. So he anticipated that all the electrons are a single electron. 

The same electron moves back and forth in time and interacts with itself an infinite number of times. By interacting with itself, it produces an infinite number of electrons. 

According to this theory, when an electron moves backwards in time, its a positron. Which is an antimatter particle of an electron.

Positron: A positron is the opposite of an electron. It has a positive electric charge.

Mathematically the one-electron universe theory has a very significant impact on many quantum mechanics calculations. But it failed to answer the question, if this theory is right, why there is very less antimatter found in the universe compared to normal matter.

Let us understand a few of the applications of the one-electron theory.


  • This theory was very helpful in getting many calculations of quantum mechanics.
  • One-Electron universe if the first theoretical basis of time travel.

In conclusion, the one-electron theory might not be successful in experiments. But the premise of this helped us solve a lot of physics problems. This theory is also the basis of the recent Christopher Nolan’s masterpiece “Tenet.”

On February 18, 2021, we had a significant breakthrough in the realm of science, “perseverance rover” is now on Mars and is alive. So congratulations to all of us on this big milestone. We as humans should be proud of that mega event and the development in science we had. Let us understand the concept of the Mars rover.

Mars Rover:

Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that moves across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival. 

Let us now understand the history of the Mars rover.

History Of Mars Rover: 

This is not the first mars rover on mars, there were few of them in past. Let us understand them.

On July 4, 1997, the USA spacecraft launched “Mars Pathfinder.” This was the first rover to operate on mars. This was one of the best mission to the world of science. It was responsible for many technologies like airbags in cars and obstacle avoiding robots.

Pathfinder, Image credit ; NASA

On January 25, 2004, NASA landed “Opportunity rover”. The mission was to determine whether life could ever have arisen on Mars (focusing particularly on searching for ancient water) and characterizing the climate and geology of Mars. The rover is now not active, NASA on 13th February 2019 gave an official declaration that it is inactive.

Opportunity rover, Image credit : NASA

On August 6, 2012, NASA landed “Curiosity rover”. Curiosity was about the size of a small SUV. It is 9 feet 10 inches long by 9 feet 1 inch wide and about 7 feet high. It had all the advanced features ( special cameras, spectrometers etc.,).

Curiosity rover, Image credit : NASA

The recent success is the perseverance rover. It was launched on 30 July 2020 by NASA. With the rover, they have also launched a mars helicopter. This mission is to read the geologic history and look for any clues about past alien inhabitants. It will also select and cache rock samples that a future rover will fetch and return to Earth sometime within the next decade. 

Perseverance rover, Image credit : NASA

Perseverance helicopter, Image credit : NASA

Let us now Understand the applications of it.

Applications of Mars Rover:

  • The first rover helped us understand and invent airbags in cars which helped us save millions of lives.
  •  For determining the mineralogy, texture, and structure of the Mars territory.
  • The spectrometer is for identifying promising rocks and soils for closer examination and for determining the processes of the Martian rocks. The instrument is designed to look skyward to provide temperature profiles of the Martian atmosphere.
  • For close-up investigations of the mineralogy of iron-bearing rocks and soils.
  • To help us find extraterrestrial life on other planets.
  • In understanding the universe deeply.
  • To launch more satellites and other objects to improve GPS, cellular reception and other important things. 

In conclusion, this is one of the biggest achievement in the field of science.

`In the last science article, we have understood the concept of Nuclear Energy. In this article, we will understand the concept of “quantum electrodynamics (QED).

Before we proceed to Quantum Electrodynamics, we should know the basic definitions of quantum physics and Electrodynamics.

Quantum Physics:

Quantum physics is the study of matter and energy at its most fundamental level. The basic story of everything around us and including us are elementary particles. 

So in simple terms, quantum physics is the study of everything in the universe. It explains how everything works in the universe. To know more about quantum physics, click here.


It is a branch of physics that deals with the consequences emerging from the interactions of electric currents with magnets, with other currents, or with themselves.

Quantum Electrodynamics (QED):

In simple words, it is a theory which explains how electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter on an atomic level. In other words (physics terms), in particle physics, quantum electrodynamics is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. Therefore, In principle, it describes how light and matter associate.

It is the first theory where the full correspondence between quantum mechanics and special relativity is achieved. To know more about relativity, click here. Let us understand the history of quantum electrodynamics.


Paul Dirac has the credit of the first basis of QED during the 1920s. He got the basis by calculating an excitation of a subatomic particle from a higher energy level to low energy level ( Also called spontaneous emission).

As the calculations were not precise due to the advancement in technology, a new theory was the need of that hour. Therefore, In 1948, there came a revolution with the precise and accurate calculations of QED.

Three of the brilliant minds in the ream of physics named Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman got the calculations precisely for QED. They were awarded Nobel Prize Jointly in the year 1965 for ” their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles.”

The most important Physicist of the above realm who not only has a major contribution to QED but also many fields of physics is Richard P. Feynman. Lets us see his view on the same.

Feynman’s view of Quantum Electrodynamics:

The key components of Feynman’s presentation of QED are three basic actions.

  • A photon goes from one place and time to another place and time.
  • An electron goes from one place and time to another place and time.
  • An electron emits or absorbs a photon at a certain place and time.

These were represented by diagrams known as “Feynman diagrams” which revolutionized modern physics forever. 

Feynman Diagrams:

They are pictorial descriptions of the mathematical expressions representing the behaviour and interaction of subatomic particles.

The following image is the Feynman diagram.

Picture Of A Feynman Diagram.

To know more about fermions, photons, gluons, Higgs boson and other concepts of particle physics, click here.

Applications Of Quantum Electrodynamics:

  • In Moessbauer-spectroscopy which is a way to determine the elements in a sample by scattering of gamma radiation.
  • Engineering modern nuclear fission and fusion technologies.
  • In modern optics.
  • Building quantum devices (like quantum computers, quantum chips etc.,)

In conclusion, quantum electrodynamics is very important to understand the functionality of our universe.

Skip to toolbar