You might be having a good day or a bad day. You might be depressed or delighted. You might be having a stressful day ahead or an easy-going one; the only thing that can make you smile after a human contact is “food.”

 If you are sad, it makes you feel better. If you are happy, it doubles your happiness. In this article, let us learn about some dangerous kitchen and food practices that we follow every day and how can we stop them, so that we can be happy and healthy.

Using Separate Cutting Boards:

Most of us use the same cutting board for vegetables, fruits, raw meat, cooked meat etc. Never do this, this very harmful and wrong practice. If you use the same board for cooked and raw meat, there is a big chance of cross-contamination of food.

If you use the same board for cutting fruits and vegetables for your salad and resting the raw meat, there is a significant chance that the bacteria in the meat will enter the salad and cause severe health issues. Use separate boards to keep it clean and efficient.

Preheating The Cooking Utensil Correctly:

The typical cooking mistake is not preheating the pan cooking utensil correctly before you start cooking. By not preheating correctly, it delays the process of cooking and even leads to serving raw food.

It is very dangerous, mainly when you are cooking meat or mushrooms. They cause food poisoning, and even there are cases of intestine damage. So preheat the pan correctly before you start cooking.  

Stirring Or Turning The Food Too Often:

It is a classic rookie mistake we all make, checking the food and stirring it often. Many experts chefs say ” stir occasionally” don’t stir frequently. By stirring food frequently there will be a huge quality issue to the food. It may stick to the bottom of the pot, may not cook properly, may lose the flavour and even remain uncooked. Let the food settle down; don’t stir it frequently.

Turning the food frequently, especially meat, omelettes, pancakes, etc., can make it undercook or overcook it. By this, it may be undercooked, lose its texture, lose its flavour, lose its texture, and maybe burnt. Please don’t turn it frequently; let it cook entirely so that it can be healthy and delicious. 

Don’t Eat Hot Food In Plastic Plates: 

Most of us don’t consider this seriously, but this is very important, we should try to avoid plastic, plates, cups etc. for hot foods. Some of the chemicals are harmful to the human body, such as BPA (bisphenol-A) and phthalates. BPA, mainly found in a type of plastic called polycarbonate.

They interact with hot food, which we consume them, and it causes severe health problems. It can lead it various types of cancers, heart diseases and sometimes organ failure. Never consume hot foods in plastic containers. 

In the end, if we avoid the things above we can be safe and keep our loves one safe.

In the modern world, there is a huge impact of technology in our day to day activities. Smart devices have become a part of us, and life becomes very complicated at times without these devices. The concepts of artificial intelligence have become intriguing, and many of us are showing keen interest in the same. In this article, let us try to understand computational intelligence and what are its applications in day to day life.

Computational Intelligence:
It is a process of computing which gives approximate solutions to complex problems. Therefore, it is useful to find solutions for problems which are very time-consuming and move forward. It is also referred to as a synonym to “Soft Computing.” In a vast perspective, it represents the branch of science and engineering concerned with making computers behave like humans.

The main principles of computer intelligence: There are five main important concepts of computer intelligence. Lets us learn them on by one.

  1. Fuzzy Logic: In simple terms, Fuzzy logic algorithm helps to solve a problem after considering all available data. Then it takes the best possible decision for the given input.
  2. Neural networks: In simple terms, the neural network is a series of algorithms that tries to recognize relationships in a set of data through a process that imitates the way of a human brain.
  3. Evolutionary computation: In evolutionary computation, the process of natural evolution (formulated by Charles Darwin) is used as a role model for a strategy for finding optimal or near-optimal solutions for a given problem.
  4. Learning theory: This can be used to bring reasoning of a computer to “Human reasoning level.”In psychology, learning is the process of bringing together cognitive, emotional and environmental effects and experiences to acquire, enhance or change knowledge, skills, values and world views.
  5. Probabilistic methods: Probabilistic methods bring out the possible solutions to a reasoning problem, based on prior knowledge. aim to evaluate the outcomes of a Computation Intelligent system, mostly by randomness.

Applications of computational intelligence: The applications are as follows.

1. Medical: The computer in this has precise moments, more accurate than a surgeon’s hands, which might increase the difficulty in performing procedures under high power microscopic magnification. Examples of such procedures now being performed that was extremely difficult if not impossible before this technology is fallopian tube repair in women, microsurgery on the fetus, and minimally invasive coronary bypass surgery.
2. Farming: For conventional row farming, where machines such as harvesters and combines are being used for a long time. Using the methods of computational intelligence, German tractor maker Fendt has developed a radio-and-GPS system that allows a driverless tractor to follow the lead of an operated one as they make their way around the fields, doubling the output.
3. Industries: The growing sophistication of sensors will make the interaction between mechanical and live workers safe and feasible. Robots such as Baxter, from Rethink Robotics, can work side by side with humans, rather than in areas. Employees will continue to perform tasks that require human judgment, while mechanical helpers take on functions that require endurance or involve hazards such as heat, cold and exposure to chemicals. Robots will lift and move heavy objects.
4. Food Preparation: Food processing is open to robotic replacement. Scientists at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing a robotic system that can debone a chicken. With a 3-D vision system, the robot can adapt to different sizes of birds. It uses a feedback system to sense the junction of ligament and bone, thereby reducing the hazard of bone chips.
5. Class Rooms: Humanoid robots will go to the head of the class, taking telelearning to new frontiers. For example, English instruction is in high demand in Asian countries such as South Korea. Enter Engkey, a robot developed by South Korea’s Center for Intelligent Robotics. Engkey teaches elementary school students pronunciation (and sings and dances). Human teachers in the classroom help facilitate Engkey’s interactions. In the Philippines, Engkey’s voice and motions are driven by a native speaker of English. The robot costs are substantially less than paying native English teachers to live and work in South Korea.
6. Military: The four-legged “mule” easily negotiates rocks and divots in the road and field. It is intended to follow a military unit of soldiers autonomously, catching up with the unit on field forays with supplies and allowing them to recharge batteries from its onboard power source. In the field, it’s surprisingly quiet an important characteristic on a secret mission. Future versions of the pack mule will be able to interpret verbal and visual commands.
7. Space Exploration: The research in robots exploring space has made a serious and positive inroad exploration of space. The major problems of human loss in space, higher temperatures, zero gravity has come to an end by using robots in space exploration. Therefore the invention of robots in space exploration not only gave safety but also accelerated the work to the maximum possible extent.



In the last article, we have understood the concept of quantum physics, and how it explains the laws of the universe. In this article let us learn the theory of relativity which brought a massive revolution in modern physics.

Before that we need to know how and who came with this idea. Albert Einstein came up with the ideas of theory of relativity. One day when he was working as a patent clerk at Bern, finished his work and boarded a tramp car on his way home. He used to finish his work as soon possible so that he can contemplate the truths of the the universe. In his free time, he used to think of different experiments for the better understanding of the universe.

That day, he devised one experiment on that tramp car which changed modern physics forever. While travelling in the tramp car, Einstein saw a clock tower, and he is moving away from it. He imagined what would happen if the tramp car would move with the speed of light? The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second; he realised if he travelled at that speed, the clock’s hands would appear to be completely frozen. At the same time, he knew that back the clock tower the hands would tick along with normal pace. Time has slowed for Einstein.

This thought blew his mind; he concluded that the faster you move in space, the slower you move through time. His work was heavily influenced by two of the great physicists of all time. First, the “laws of motion by” “Sir Isaac Newton” and second by the “laws of electromagnetism” by “James Clerk Maxwell.” According to the laws of motion, velocities are always relative. For example, imagine a train travelling at 50 kilometres per hour. The speed of the train is 50 Kilometers per hour for someone at rest. It is only 30 kilometres per hour if another train is travelling with respect to this train and in same direction with a speed of 20 kilometers per hour.

This is true for the earth, sun, Milky Way galaxy and other galaxies. According to Maxwell, the speed of an electromagnetic wave(in this case light) is constant, regardless of the observer. If we take Newton’s laws into this, there is a clash, according to newton the velocity and speed are relative but the speed of light is constant regardless of the observer. Thus Einstein proposed his “Special Relativity theory” in 1905.

Special Relativity Theory: There are two postulates of special relativity.

1. The laws of physics take the same form in all inertial frames of reference.
2. As measured in any inertial frame of reference, light is always propagated in space with a definite velocity “c” that is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body. Or: the speed of light in free space has the same value “c” in all inertial frames of reference.

Pictorial representation of Special relativity.


The first postulate says that the laws of physics are the same for the person who is in moving in constant velocity or at rest. If we apply any laws of physics the results will be the same. The second postulate is very explanatory.

Mass–energy equivalence: Mass-energy equivalence states that the total mass of a system may change, although the total energy and momentum remain constant. In simple words,  mass can be converted into energy and visa-versa.

E=mc2

Where E = Energy.
M = Mass.
C = Speed of Light.

Applications of special relativity: There are many applications of some of the important ones are GPS (Global Positioning System), Cathode-ray tubes (Old Television screens), modern computer chips and most important of all, by the concept of “Energy – Mass equivalence” was essential for the development of “nuclear fission” and “nuclear fusion” which are used in all nuclear plants.

So we understood the concept of special relativity, now let us understand the concept of general relativity. Before that, we need to understand the back story of the same.

Again back to Einstein and his brilliant imagination. One day he was observing a window washer on a ladder from his office. He imagined what would happen if the washer fell, for most of us it is a horror story which will never end will. But Einstein thought it differently, he imagined himself in the place of the washer while falling. He didn’t imagine what would happen if he hits the ground but imagined what he would experience while falling.

He realised that gravity was the only force acting on him while he was falling and accelerating towards the ground. Without the wind resistance, he would be free in fall, which is no different from being weightless as the ground is not coming up. This is nothing, but he is falling in space where there is zero gravity. He wanted to connect gravity to his theory of relativity through acceleration.

Einstein imagined a room without windows and it has a weighing scale and checked his weight, it would be constant at any point on the earth. Now he imagined the room is in a spaceship, which is moving upward with a speed of 9.8 meters per second which the speed of acceleration due to gravity on earth. Now, what would happen if he stepped on the scale? The weight should be the same as the space ship is accelerating upwards with the same speed that of acceleration due to gravity but this time it is upwards.

Einstein thought about telling the difference between acceleration and gravity, now he imagined shooting a light or laser beam from one point of the room to the other while the spaceship is moving upwards. He saw that the light is bent while moving from one point to another. The size of the light would be lower compared to the projection point. This is because the room is moving upwards with a speed of 9.8 meters per second. The light beam would appear a bit curved downward.

However if you are on earth, you wont see this phenomena. The projection point and the projected points height would be the same. Einstein thought why is this different as it would the equivalence of gravity. The force is constant while it is upwards or downwards. He thought light must bend under the influence of a gravitational field, but how could this be possible as the light always takes the shortest path. May be the shortest point between two points is a curve?

Imagine earth which is spherical in shape, the surface if the earth is never a straight line, it is always a curve. So may be the gravitation causes the curvature of space somehow. He hypothesized may be the straight line is not the shortest path in space, with the presence of mass and energy space somehow becomes curved. This is again different from Newton’s hypothesis in which space and time are fixed. In Newton’s model, gravity acted within space and time.

Einstein’s theory was gravity emerges when there is an interaction between space and time. This is General Relativity in a nutshell.

General Relativity: The central idea of general relativity is that space and time are two aspects of spacetime. Spacetime is curved when there is matter, energy, and momentum resulting in what we perceive as gravity.

Pictorial representation of general relativity.

Spacetime: Space-time is a mathematical model that joins space and time into a single idea called a continuum.

Pictorial representation of spacetime.

Applications of general relativity: It can explain why planets revolve around in their orbits, why light bends at blackholes, correcting high precision clocks on satellites, gravitational lensing in astronomy, and a large variety of corrected astrophysics calculations.

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