In the last article, we have understood the concept of “Entropy.” In this article, let us understand the concept of the Information paradox

One of the unsolved mystery in science is the “Black Hole Information Paradox.” To understand this, we need to understand a few terms of physics.

Quantum Physics: Quantum physics is the study of matter and energy at its most fundamental level. To know more on quantum physics, click here.


Black Holes: A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing, no particles or even light can escape. To know more on black holes, click here.

Event Horizon: It is the boundary surrounding the region of space of a black hole from which nothing (not even light) can escape.

Hawking’s Radiation: It is thermal radiation black holes emit, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

As we all know, everything in this universe is made of matter. If we divide matter into the smallest particles we get subatomic particles. They are the building blocks of everything in this universe.

Let us take an object, for example, any flammable substance. No matter how much you burn it, the quantum level of the substance remains the same in the universe. It stays in some or the other form.

There is a vital law of physics here ” The total amount of quantum information in the universe must be conserved.” Theoretically, knowledge of that information will help us recreate the substance again.
When an object falls into the black hole, it seems that it leaves the universe.

The object might be in the black hole. Theoretical proofs suggest that the objects quantum information might be present in the event horizon of the black hole. As the black holes’ mass increases by taking in the objects, the area of the black hole. Therefore the event horizon increases.

According to Hawking’s radiation, black holes evaporate gradually over time. Black holes loose mass, as they discard particles from the event horizon. Hawkings radiation shows that the particles that come out from the event horizon are not the same that has entered.

As the black hole evaporates completely, we do not have any information on the particles that have entered the black hole. This is the information paradox of black hole. Till now there is no exact proof for this paradox.

In the last science article, we have understood the concept of Particle Physics. In this article, we will understand the concept of “Entropy” and the Importance of it. 

Entropy: In simple terms, the entropy of a system is the measure of the amount of energy that cannot do work. It is a measurable physical characteristic generally associated with a state of disorder, randomness, or uncertainty in science terms.

The concept of entropy presents a deep insight into the area of natural change for various daily events. Not only in science, but entropy also helps us to understand the day to day events of our life.

The entropy concept was introduced by a German Scientist named “Rudolf Clausius” in the year 1865. Entropy came into existence to tackle a mathematical formulation to explain a body changes through heat transfer between that body and different environments.

Entropy applies to every part of our lives. It is inescapable, and even if we try to ignore it, the result is a breakdown of some kind. Indeed understanding entropy guides to a drastic difference in the way we see the universe.

Entropy also paved the way to one of the most Significant laws of physics. Entropy is one of the vital parts of “Second Law Of Thermodynamics.”

Second Law Of Thermodynamics: The second law states that “The total change in entropy of a system and its surroundings will always increase spontaneously.”

In simple terms, if no energy enters or leaves the system in all energy transfers, the state’s potential energy will always be less than that of the original state.

Applications Of Entropy:

  1. Understanding the surface time contributions of string theory. To learn more about string theory, click here.
  2. Measuring and manipulating the system based on the data gathered by computation in quantum physics. To learn more about quantum physics, click here. 
  3. Understanding the concept of Entropic Gravity to understand the concepts of relativity. To learn more about concepts of relativity, click here.
  4. Studying how dark matter is distributed among galaxies. To learn more about dark matter and dark energy, click here.
  5. Calculating why positrons repel each other in antimatter. To learn more about antimatter, click here.
  6. Studying the laws of thermodynamics on the event horizons of black holes. To learn more about black holes, click here.
  7. Grasping the gravitational properties of exotic properties in wormholes. To learn more about wormholes, click here.
  8. Learning why system leads to disorder in chaos theory. To learn more about chaos theory, click here.
  9. Deriving the concepts of particle position in particle physics. To learn more about particle physics, click here.
  10. Understanding deeply about civilizations on the Kardashev scale. To learn more about the Kardashev scale, click here.
  11. Learning on how a car runs by converting fuel into heat.
  12. To transmit a message via any channel. 
  13. The digestion of food, the digestion, is how food converts to energy for the body.

Thus the concept of entropy is very very important to understand many concepts of physics and real life.

In modern life, where we have an imaginary race with time, learning the things we want to has become difficult. One of my physics hero “Richard P Feynman” has got a technique to learn things in a speedy yet efficient way.

Richard P Feynman was one of the best physicist known to the world. He won a Nobel prize for fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics in the year 1965. If you want to learn more about quantum physics, click here.

Feynman is also known as the “Great Explainer” in the realm of science. When a person is a great explainer, his learning technique must be excellent. I have personally used this technique, and the results I have been getting are fantastic.  

Feynman’s technique is not just to learn maths or science. The method can be used to learn anything fastly and very efficiently. There are four steps involved in this technique, and they are as follows.

1.Write Down The Subject: Take a paper or any smart device (Laptop or a phone), and write the title. After that, write everything you know about the topic. If you find new information, keep adding to your topic. Make 

sure to include as much important information as possible.

2.Teach It To A Kid: This is one of the most essential and exciting steps of this technique. Note down as much as you can and teach the concept to the kids. If you do not have any toddler, make your brain a six-year-old one and start teaching it.

Teaching kids has many implications, and that has many advantages. One of them is attention span; kids have the least attention span possible. So you can treat the explanation as an elevator pitch and explain the concept in as less time as possible.  

kids also ask many questions when they learn or see something. By getting more questions, you will research more on the subject to find answers. By doing that, you will understand it deeply and cover all the basics.

3. Identify The Gaps: This is the time where the actual learning starts. Identify all the gaps like what did you miss? What didn’t you know? So on and so forth. Identify all the gaps that are missing in your learning and make a list. After this, go back to your sources, find answers for them and keep repeating until you are convinced. 

4. Organise And Simplify: After identifying and filling the gaps, organise all your learning. In the next step, simplify the language of the notes you have written. If you can express the concept, you have learnt in the simplest words possible, my friend you have learnt it through and through. 

The above method is Feynman’s technique of learning anything. As I said above, I have been using this since the past few weeks, and I got some fantastic results. If you have any other methods, do let us know by emailing us or messaging us on any of our social media platforms.

Before we end, I wanted to wish you all a very Happy New Year from my friends and me at Penfluky. Stay safe, be smart, keep an eye on your loves ones and happy learning. 

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