On February 18, 2021, we had a significant breakthrough in the realm of science, “perseverance rover” is now on Mars and is alive. So congratulations to all of us on this big milestone. We as humans should be proud of that mega event and the development in science we had. Let us understand the concept of the Mars rover.

Mars Rover:

Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that moves across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival. 

Let us now understand the history of the Mars rover.

History Of Mars Rover: 

This is not the first mars rover on mars, there were few of them in past. Let us understand them.

On July 4, 1997, the USA spacecraft launched “Mars Pathfinder.” This was the first rover to operate on mars. This was one of the best mission to the world of science. It was responsible for many technologies like airbags in cars and obstacle avoiding robots.

Pathfinder, Image credit ; NASA

On January 25, 2004, NASA landed “Opportunity rover”. The mission was to determine whether life could ever have arisen on Mars (focusing particularly on searching for ancient water) and characterizing the climate and geology of Mars. The rover is now not active, NASA on 13th February 2019 gave an official declaration that it is inactive.

Opportunity rover, Image credit : NASA

On August 6, 2012, NASA landed “Curiosity rover”. Curiosity was about the size of a small SUV. It is 9 feet 10 inches long by 9 feet 1 inch wide and about 7 feet high. It had all the advanced features ( special cameras, spectrometers etc.,).

Curiosity rover, Image credit : NASA

The recent success is the perseverance rover. It was launched on 30 July 2020 by NASA. With the rover, they have also launched a mars helicopter. This mission is to read the geologic history and look for any clues about past alien inhabitants. It will also select and cache rock samples that a future rover will fetch and return to Earth sometime within the next decade. 

Perseverance rover, Image credit : NASA

Perseverance helicopter, Image credit : NASA

Let us now Understand the applications of it.

Applications of Mars Rover:

  • The first rover helped us understand and invent airbags in cars which helped us save millions of lives.
  •  For determining the mineralogy, texture, and structure of the Mars territory.
  • The spectrometer is for identifying promising rocks and soils for closer examination and for determining the processes of the Martian rocks. The instrument is designed to look skyward to provide temperature profiles of the Martian atmosphere.
  • For close-up investigations of the mineralogy of iron-bearing rocks and soils.
  • To help us find extraterrestrial life on other planets.
  • In understanding the universe deeply.
  • To launch more satellites and other objects to improve GPS, cellular reception and other important things. 

In conclusion, this is one of the biggest achievement in the field of science.

A criticism of my early views that laws are a common compromise of people who can take responsibility for their acts: To explain this better, I’ll explain my early views on morality and human freedom. I believed that they don’t co-exist. A moral judgement is a judgement of an act. An act done by a human in any emotional state is done with a rush to do it. Is it justified then? No! Does it need to be judged? Of course! But why? Why do actions of other people bother us? Why should we even live together?

Humans are condemned to be free. There is no way out. Is there a common essence for all of us? No. Is there a common purpose? No. Can we have objective morals? No. But we have understood that we can survive if we lived in groups. And it worked. Thus, we built civilizations, kingdoms, states and now nations. Now, do we need objective rules that repress us?

We need to understand that there is no supernatural judgement waiting to judge our actions. If we have to survive better, living in groups is the better way. And for that, we do need rules that don’t destroy society. We need society alive and functioning. So regardless of our opinion towards it, there is a forced common goal for all of us. That is to maintain harmony to live together intending no harm. Thus, we need objective rules that will however cause repression, but it should be a common compromise. “Humans are condemned to live together”

These rules should be applied in the best interest of maintaining harmony. Anarchy is amazing? Of course, it is. Imagine being able to live your own life independently, governing yourselves. But humans are beasts in nature; like any other animal. We have tried to refuse our true nature for a long time now. We have to accept that we all are predators, hunters, killers and thieves. Given certain pressure, everyone can break the threshold and can commit any treacherous act just to survive. It is there in all of us. That is our true nature, the true essence — we are animals.

Rather than judging our true nature to be filthy from the fixed-moral perspective, we should accept it. We should embrace the fact that we are all by birth predators and contribute to the common goal of harmony voluntarily. If it’s a rule book of God that condemns us to act accordingly to the rules, it causes repression. If it’s a spiritual guide, it causes repression too. You are suppressing your true nature rather than embracing it.

End of the day, rules, morals and laws only exist to maintain harmony. Why don’t we all contribute to it voluntarily? Rather than being suppressed by an unknown or a third-party-source (government), we can do it on our own. And the only third-party judge, the law should indeed exist, even though it suppresses our true nature, it is the necessary suppression we need to balance the harmony.

It won’t work if we ask people to create morals themselves. We can not blame the irresponsible for not taking the responsibility of creating their values. Again, it is natural. We are the beasts that we need to tame. And the taming; not because of a holy purpose. Or a moral judgement of a good/bad. But just what needs for society to exist. There is no objective good/bad, but just accepted/not accepted. Killing is not bad, it is just not acceptable. It is still natural for humans to kill, but we don’t need it now if we want to exist together.

I had this view that people who took responsibility to create their own values to not harm the other have compromised to create laws to control the irresponsible. I saw it in two perspectives. One being an unselfish contribution to the society. That is, that the law exists because the irresponsible cannot create their own values. The other being, a selfish act to preserve oneself. That is, that the responsible understand that we need harmony and thus to protect themselves from the irresponsible they have created these rules.

On further introspection, that might sound true, but such is not the case. There exists some common and objectively accepted thing in all of us. That is the idea of living together. This idea is the agent that causes morals, laws and values. People who don’t have these ideas of harmony are called ‘anti-social’ or sociopaths. According to what is not-accepted (bad) by all of us (those who wish harmony), a sociopath is bad (not-accepted), because a sociopath destroys the fundamentals of living together.

What is objectively bad is that which does not value or disregards the balance of the society. What is objectively good is that which does add to or does not break the fundamentals of society, at least. Thus, even though objectivity is a human construct, that is much needed. And as ironic as it may sound, it takes a person who is individual and independent to form a better society — so independent that one’s growth does not even depend on the decline of other people.

In the imaginary race with time, I barely think about what is happening to me. If I stress I even don’t know what I’m feeling. But there some sort of disturbance or sadness that is always pumping from the bottom of my heart.

I work at a graveyard shift for a private company. My job is to take client tickets and resolve them. There will be calls of clients as well, I need to greet them with a smile and assist them accordingly. Yeah, it sucks to the bottom, but what sucks more is the way I get treated.

The clients don’t have respect for us as humans what so ever. We get to hear all kinds of cusses. I got to know them in different languages too. It is like I got used to them, I don’t like it, but that is what it is.

If the work is like this, one would expect the management would be supportive. That ship sank to the bottom way back and its the worst. The stuff they do to keep us “Productive” is bizarre.

They do a video call in the middle of the shift just to check if we are smiling while talking to clients. They are planning to plant mirrors so that we can set our looks and smile while talking.

I don’t know how to express this. They are trying to cut our genuine emotions and programming us to smile. They are trying to make us into robots from top to bottom. It feels very difficult even to breathe and survive.

It feels like a bottomless pit and I keep on falling. Personal life is no paradise either. It feels like “so-called” family members treat me like some random object that we ignore. No one asks If I smiled or had a good day or anything.

But if I talk about passion or something, they pile on me and bring me down to the ground. I also want to talk to my mother in a normal way. I also want to share information with my father like a normal child. But they seem like far fetched dreams.

Few of my friends stopped talking to me because of my bottom states. I get emotional when a huge pile of problems fall on me. Let’s face it, no one likes a whiny person right? I’m shocked and privileged I still have few people and friends that listen to me.

My phone goes empty all day. I sit alone in my room working or doing something. Some of my friends used to call me regularly the day would be way better. Now no one talks and suddenly I need to take these calls and it feels all fuzzy and weird. It’s fine everyone has their own lives and priorities.

Every time I hear that ring on the call, my heart skips a bit. Some unknown fear and pain run to the bottom of my spine and in my heart. what cusses would I need to hear today? Who will yell at me? How much I’m I going to feel sad today?

I get panicked and get very scared. It feels like someone is groping me and I sit there and allow it to happen. It hurts a lot inside and I don’t know how to express it. I’m lost for words and in a lot of pain that I cannot handle.

Why I’m I saying all this? So-called people and society say we need to work hard and we will be good. If people call this good, then I never want to be good in life. This sucks to the core, it is a huge pile of shit, where I survive daily on my tears.

You kill all of our curiosity we have as a child and try to rub your hypothetical success goals on us. Why should someone do a job and laugh and be fake and do a naked dance in this bottomless hole?Why cannot a person be the way he wants to live?

If we question all this we are being rude and don’t know anything in life. If doing what we love is rude and smiling is ignorance about life, then fine I’m happy to be ignorantly rude. But we can’t right, all kinds of crap come up if we open and talk.

The bottom line is I prefer if I don’t exist. I’m running an imaginary race that I never signed up for. I don’t know for how long but the longer I keep running to the bottom I keep sinking.

Note: This is from our beloved friends John’s diary.

`In the last science article, we have understood the concept of Nuclear Energy. In this article, we will understand the concept of “quantum electrodynamics (QED).

Before we proceed to Quantum Electrodynamics, we should know the basic definitions of quantum physics and Electrodynamics.

Quantum Physics:

Quantum physics is the study of matter and energy at its most fundamental level. The basic story of everything around us and including us are elementary particles. 

So in simple terms, quantum physics is the study of everything in the universe. It explains how everything works in the universe. To know more about quantum physics, click here.

Electrodynamics:

It is a branch of physics that deals with the consequences emerging from the interactions of electric currents with magnets, with other currents, or with themselves.

Quantum Electrodynamics (QED):

In simple words, it is a theory which explains how electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter on an atomic level. In other words (physics terms), in particle physics, quantum electrodynamics is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. Therefore, In principle, it describes how light and matter associate.

It is the first theory where the full correspondence between quantum mechanics and special relativity is achieved. To know more about relativity, click here. Let us understand the history of quantum electrodynamics.

History:

Paul Dirac has the credit of the first basis of QED during the 1920s. He got the basis by calculating an excitation of a subatomic particle from a higher energy level to low energy level ( Also called spontaneous emission).

As the calculations were not precise due to the advancement in technology, a new theory was the need of that hour. Therefore, In 1948, there came a revolution with the precise and accurate calculations of QED.

Three of the brilliant minds in the ream of physics named Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman got the calculations precisely for QED. They were awarded Nobel Prize Jointly in the year 1965 for ” their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles.”

The most important Physicist of the above realm who not only has a major contribution to QED but also many fields of physics is Richard P. Feynman. Lets us see his view on the same.

Feynman’s view of Quantum Electrodynamics:

The key components of Feynman’s presentation of QED are three basic actions.

  • A photon goes from one place and time to another place and time.
  • An electron goes from one place and time to another place and time.
  • An electron emits or absorbs a photon at a certain place and time.

These were represented by diagrams known as “Feynman diagrams” which revolutionized modern physics forever. 

Feynman Diagrams:

They are pictorial descriptions of the mathematical expressions representing the behaviour and interaction of subatomic particles.

The following image is the Feynman diagram.

Picture Of A Feynman Diagram.

To know more about fermions, photons, gluons, Higgs boson and other concepts of particle physics, click here.

Applications Of Quantum Electrodynamics:

  • In Moessbauer-spectroscopy which is a way to determine the elements in a sample by scattering of gamma radiation.
  • Engineering modern nuclear fission and fusion technologies.
  • In modern optics.
  • Building quantum devices (like quantum computers, quantum chips etc.,)

In conclusion, quantum electrodynamics is very important to understand the functionality of our universe.

Argument isn’t such a bad word. There is a negative term ‘bad argument’ which has now somehow become synonymous for very ‘argument’ itself. But such is not the case in reality. There indeed is a ‘good argument’. In fact, it is the arguments that have advanced humans philosophically and scientifically!

For many years, people have claimed ‘arguments’ as the source where all the knowledge had begun. But later, we understood that there wouldn’t have an argument if we never thought, so it must be thinking where the source of all knowledge is. But the later existentialism pushes existence prior to anything. It is only logical to credit existence as the source. 

But initially, arguments were thought to be the source, and such is the value of an argument. And it is not necessarily a bad one. It is through arguments that you would know new things. But there is a form- a structure to it. You can not argue blandly with random utterances. So, what is this form? How to argue in the right way?

Arguments and its components

The sentences you use in arguments, are not mere sentences but propositions. And these propositions consist of terms and not mere words! It might appear to be philosophical mumbo-jumbo, but it isn’t. Arguments are where linguistics, philosophy and mathematics begin their hopeless romance. To begin with, let’s hop on and dive into defining these weird words or should I say, terms?

Terms and Proposition

What is a word? A group of letters that define something is a word. A ‘bottle’ is a word. A ‘word’ is a word! In day-to-day life, we use the words, ‘word’ and ‘term’ interchangeably, but it is a logical blunder to do so. Terms are specific and refer to something particular unlike words which just define and express but not refer! Terms have precise meaning and you know what it refers to just by listening to it or reading it. All the terms are words, but all the words are not terms. 

Terms can have multiple words in them. “The legendary filmmaker of 2001: Space Odyssey”, this sentence has many words in them. But the entire sentence is a single term, as it is referring towards a single person. In that way, we can differentiate words and terms. The group of words form sentences. Now what do the group of terms form? A proposition! And not many, but two terms in specific form a proposition.

Propositions are to sentences like terms are to words. Sentences are groups of words that form a meaning altogether. While propositions are sentences that are specific and assert some value! Propositions are not random but have an opinion to them. “Mr.Nobody is a masterpiece”, this sentence is a proposition as it asserts an opinion towards some subject. And those two, subject and the opinion are two terms that exist in a proposition. A subject term is ‘about what the proposition is’ and a predicate term (opinion) is ‘what is the matter told about the subject’. Together a subject term and a predicate term form a proposition.

In the above example “Mr.Nobody is a masterpiece”, the subject term here is ‘Mr.Nobody’ and the predicate term is ‘masterpiece’.

The argument!

Now as we are forming a pattern here, you must be guessing how terms and propositions are linked to an argument? And a bunch of propositions form an argument! But again, there is a form to do it in the logical way. An argument consists of two sets of propositions. The first set is (are) called Premise(s) and the other as Conclusion. The premise is the logical support (data) you give to make your conclusion stand. They are baseless without each other.

You can not have an argument without both premises and conclusion. You can have many premises but there is only one conclusion. Regardless of the truth or falsity of the conclusion, a valid argument is something that follows this form. The conclusion can be false, but if it is in the form, it is indeed a valid argument.

Example:

Premise 1: All X are Z

Premise 2: All Z are Y

Conclusion: All X are Y

Here, in premise 1, X is the subject and Z is the predicate term. 

In premise 2, Z is the subject and Y is the predicate term.

This is how you argue in a logical way, by giving out premises, making a conclusion out of it! Or you draw a conclusion and form enough premises to support your conclusion. Without this form, your argument is a bad argument and it leads nowhere. To argue, is to be logical! To be logical, be formal. Let’s get back into finding out the validity of arguments and truth and falsity of propositions next week!

In the last science article, we have learnt the concept of the information paradox. In this article, we shall learn the concept of nuclear energy and the important uses of it.

Nuclear Energy: 

Nuclear Energy is the energy that is present within the nucleus of an atom. An atom is a small unit of matter which makes up everything in the universe. 

Nuclear Energy is useful in creating Electricity. But as the energy is within the atomic nuclei of an atom. Therefore, we need to separate it from atomic nuclei and use it.

The process is extremely difficult, and nuclear power plants are used to split atoms of an element and extract the energy. To extract the energy from the nuclei of the atoms, nuclear fission is done.

Nuclear Fission: 

Nuclear fission is a process in which, the nucleus of a single atom splits into two or more nuclei.

The most commonly used fuel for nuclear energy is Uranium 235. The basic concept of a nuclear reactor working is “Controlled chain reaction.”

Chain Reaction:

A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions in which the reactive or by-product causes additional reactions.

Let us know understand how a nuclear reactor inside a nuclear plant works.

  1. The outer layer of the plant is covered with concrete steel structure and is called containment.
  2. Heavy water or graphite is used as a moderator to control the speed of atoms coming out of the fuel.
  3. The generally used fuel material is uranium—U-235.
  4. Control rods like cadmium, hafnium or boron are used.
  5. A nuclear reactor has a coolant like water or molten salt. The heat from the chain reaction reacts with coolant and produces steam.

Working Of A Nuclear Reactor: Let us understand how a nuclear reactor works.

  • Uranium 235 is filled inside a nuclear reactor.
  • The atoms of uranium collide with a neutron, this released a chained reaction and a huge amount of energy.
  • Control rods like cadmium, hafnium or boron are inserted to absorb the excessive atoms produced by fission. By this, the chain reaction is controlled.
  • The moderator liquid is used to control the speed of atoms and slow down the reaction.
  • The Energy from the fission reacts with coolant and produces steam.
  • The steam is then used to run turbines to produce electricity.

This is how a nuclear reactor works. It is one of the important forms of renewable energy on this planet.

When the time passes towards the night,
It is time to set everything straight.
It is time to log in and work,
Time to put on a fake smirk.

I have to speak to clients on the phone.
Treating their problems as my own.
It feels like the night is pulling me to oblivion,
Sometimes it all feels like an illusion.

I feel like a night owl that doesn’t know other sounds,
It feels like I’m lost in a gigantic abyss.
I can’t even cry about it as I need to speak,
My heart inside me always has that sad squeak.

I cannot keep these emotions no matter how much I try,
Sometimes in the night, I want to hug someone and cry.
Every night I work it makes me more depressed,
I have lost interest in things that make me excited.

Mentally, I’m dead and physically tired,
Trying to keep it together, emotionally I’m drained.

In the last article, we have understood the concept of “Entropy.” In this article, let us understand the concept of the Information paradox

One of the unsolved mystery in science is the “Black Hole Information Paradox.” To understand this, we need to understand a few terms of physics.

Quantum Physics: Quantum physics is the study of matter and energy at its most fundamental level. To know more on quantum physics, click here.


Black Holes: A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing, no particles or even light can escape. To know more on black holes, click here.

Event Horizon: It is the boundary surrounding the region of space of a black hole from which nothing (not even light) can escape.

Hawking’s Radiation: It is thermal radiation black holes emit, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

As we all know, everything in this universe is made of matter. If we divide matter into the smallest particles we get subatomic particles. They are the building blocks of everything in this universe.

Let us take an object, for example, any flammable substance. No matter how much you burn it, the quantum level of the substance remains the same in the universe. It stays in some or the other form.

There is a vital law of physics here ” The total amount of quantum information in the universe must be conserved.” Theoretically, knowledge of that information will help us recreate the substance again.
When an object falls into the black hole, it seems that it leaves the universe.

The object might be in the black hole. Theoretical proofs suggest that the objects quantum information might be present in the event horizon of the black hole. As the black holes’ mass increases by taking in the objects, the area of the black hole. Therefore the event horizon increases.

According to Hawking’s radiation, black holes evaporate gradually over time. Black holes loose mass, as they discard particles from the event horizon. Hawkings radiation shows that the particles that come out from the event horizon are not the same that has entered.

As the black hole evaporates completely, we do not have any information on the particles that have entered the black hole. This is the information paradox of black hole. Till now there is no exact proof for this paradox.

Swallow and The Great Indian Kitchen

It’s no secret that we live in a patriarchal world. We are at the dawn of new cultural reform, we are now truly understanding individual choices and freedom after years of shout-outs and books. But, any progress is progress. And to mark this progress, I bring out two cinematic parallels, Swallow (2020) and The great Indian kitchen (2021).

On the surface level, they might appear as two different films. But the thing that I clubbed them together is because in-depth they are the same movie! No, I’m not accusing of plagiarism, but I’m just pointing out the similarities in the theme. And this thematic similarities doesn’t occur from copying each other, but they exist around the world. 

The common theme in both the films is the identity crisis of a woman who is deemed to be a housewife for the rest of her life. And this happens everywhere in the world. The term housewife is synonymous to housemaid, the only difference is the wife is unpaid and should provide more services than a maid.

The theme

It is no exaggeration when I say women feel choked when this happens. Why would they as individuals should let another individual overshadow their identity? Now, the husbands don’t do that voluntarily in many cases, but it is indeed happening! In the name of culture and traditions we have long been shadowing a woman’s identity.

Both Swallow and The great Indian kitchen deal with this identity crisis of a housewife in their own different ways, deconstructing norms of their own regions. While Swallow is more focused on maternity, abortion, identity, freedom; The great Indian kitchen also touches religious and other cultural sentiments.

While Swallow is cleverly crafted and dealt with metaphors and surreal/psychological elements, TGK is straightforward and loud. TGK doesn’t hesitate from being passed away as over-spoken or being too predictable. TGK only cares about conveying the message and hence it is a mission accomplished. Right from the very first frame, the message and themes are clearly visible and understood in TGK.

The films as whole

While it is an artistic choice on how to make a film, it would have been better if TGK was not predictable. But at the same time, I’m hit with the dilemma that what if that is what they wanted to create? What if Jeo Baby, the maker, intended to bore me with predictability, because that is the entire point of the film. 

The film is nothing but an orthodox family and its housewife’s daily chores. Of course it’s predictable and repetitive. If this predictability was an artistic choice, it was a good thing to do so, because the message about the boredom and jail-ish feel of a housewife life is super conveyed!

But if it was a coincidence, then it was a lucky one. I wasn’t in awe looking at TGK as a film. But was in awe of the guts of the maker and the actor’s flawless acting. But if you ask if I would suggest TGK to others? Definitely I would! I urge all women and especially Indians to watch TGK!

Swallow keeps you hooked on with its interesting plot and character development. And it doesn’t feel like the plot is leading the character towards the shift. But it happens with TGK. Somewhere in the middle I felt like the character development was a bit shallow. It left a lot of doubts about the protagonist. The plot led the character shift in TGK, not how it should have happened. 

 We need more TGKs!

If only there were more details on the protagonist, it would have led the character development go smooth and doesn’t feel forced and projected. But Jeo Baby’s target was arranged marriage, regional cultural norms of marriage and post-married life of a housewife, so he might just have thought the details to be unnecessary. But the details would only have given a sense of completeness in the end.

India needs more movies like TGK. It is only through movies can we really make a cultural reform now. It’s time we understood why arranged marriages won’t work and only cause pain. It is already late to realise that housewives are nothing but housemaids with benefits.

What a moral is more than just an outfit? It is as simple as changing a dress. The randomness of events allow you to justify any reason and make it look right. You can even gain support for your justification if it is done right. Because all justification needs is form. Put it in the right form, you can even write articles justifying Hitler’s horrific acts. That’s how sensitive and easy to manipulate events are. If you can fabricate anything into anything how valid do you think your morals are?

You believe certain things, you stand out for them. You believe it harder and through belief you begin justifying them. You might fail, but you will try. You might be laughed at but you will become more stubborn towards your belief. One fine day, you will have enough words and proper form to place your belief in a logical way. Once you justify your beliefs in the proper form, the form enough attracts support from people with similar minds.

People with different minds begin to think of it as it sounds justified. Now a new perspective occurs. That’s how easy it is to change one’s morals. How funny it is to believe in a particular thing and stand for it? You believe that you are an animal lover, you are against captivating animals in pet stores. Hence you choose not to buy a pet. But times have passed, you had to buy a pet, now you have to fight with your belief that you are an animal lover.

Would you rather give up on your belief and adapt to buying the pet or will you justify yourself still as an animal lover? You can do both. You can tell yourself that you are liberating the animal from captivity. You can still be the hero you believe. Because it is everything about what you believe. Tell someone enough that they are a narcissist, maybe they will become one.

Having any belief can be justified. I’m not trying to say that everything is true, in contrast, nothing is true. I like how Assassin’s Creed uses “Nothing is true, everything is permitted”. Yes, indeed it is true. And it forms a truth paradox if it is true of what is true if nothing is true? Is the statement nothing is true false? If it is false? Is everything true, then again, if everything is true, then the statement becomes true too.

If not ‘everything is true’ and not ‘nothing is true’, then there is just something that is true and something that is not. What is the quantitative measure of truth and how do you judge it? If you judge it by mere feeling, it is irrational and not objective. If you judge it by form, well, as discussed above, everything can be fit into form. So the very notion of true and false belief is an invalid and self contradicting theory constructed psychologically. 

When what you strongly believe and justify becomes true/untrue why do we even bother with such a judgement? Why do we worry constantly about what belief is true and what is not? What does it matter if it isn’t true as long as you can change your beliefs as quickly as you change clothes.

I witnessed a change in my body
I see that I don’t fit in my dress anymore
I go back to my room
I found a new costume in my closet
Just waiting for me to wear it

During this tough time of the pandemic, there is a lot of focus on mental health issues. Loneliness is one of the leading mental health issues in the world. 

People often think loneliness as deliberately being alone and craving attention. They are very wrong about this and most of the so-called “educated people” don’t even know or try to understand mental health issues. 

To be brutally honest, most of the people think loneliness is being alone. The major and very important difference is being alone is a choice, in which the person choosing is comfortable being alone. Loneliness is not a choice, it is an infinite loop which sucks in almost everything from the person stuck in it

So I was once caught in an argument among so-called “intellectuals.” They were arguing that loneliness is bull-crap it is just a craving for attention. Some of the sane minds were saying it is a sign that the person suffering wants to express something but is unable to convey.

To get a deep perspective on this, I texted one of my dearest friends. If you are an avid reader, you know him as “John.” If you want to know more about John, read this article first and this next.

The Tyler Durden to My narrator ( The reference is from fight club movie, if you have not watched it, I highly recommend you do.) John has a weird habit of texting. When I send him a message, he sees it and replies after an hour or so. 

So I texted him ” Is loneliness a craving for attention or to express something?”, he saw the message, and after an hour my phone chimed. It is John, and here is how our conversation went:

John: What made you ask this question? It is a very interesting one.

Me:  I’m on a bus travelling to my home town, some of the people were discussing mental health issues, and this came up. So I decided to ask your take on it.

John: Okay, as you are asking my perspective, I’m going to say it, it is neither. But I’m more inclined towards expression,

Me: Interesting! Could you elaborate more on how you said neither?

John: Sure, before I begin, I want to put it on the table that, this is the study based on my observations. I can be completely wrong, but this is the conclusion I got my observations. Let us begin by questioning the preface, Why do people feel lonely? 

Me: There are multiple factors, low self-esteem, not knowing about self, not fitting in, getting stuck in the past, mental health issues and many more.

John: Good, in the above list except for mental health issues, all the other are social skills, right?

Me: Not entirely, but yes their major role lies in social skills. 

John: Okay, when you feel low, you feel to share it with someone. You will prefer if someone has called you, texted you or talked to you in person. By this, you feel a bit relieved, yes? 

Me: Yes, if there is a right company it feels good.

John: Why do you share? Because you feel, that person is important in your life. You feel relieved by sharing and it also restores balance conundrum you are having with the issue. Sometimes you just need a person to listen, and most importantly you might get a new perspective on the issue, right?

Me: Yes, I agree with that.

John: Okay, now imagine a person putting some sad quotes as his status on any social media. Few people might ask, few people might not. If he keeps repeating this, no one cares and bother to text them, did you feel this anytime?

Me: Yes I did and I always wonder why does this happen. I mean people will have different issues to feel sad. 

John: You have just answered the question. People think they get used to sadness, I never understand this concept. How on earth can someone get used to sadness? He is squeaking that he needs someone to talk. We all know that loneliness is the leading cause for depression, but no one gives a rats ass. 

Me:  I agree! So this is how people get lonely? Man people should start caring.

John:  This is where you are wrong my friend. Why should someone care for you? Why should they listen to you when you want to talk? In the process of evolution, we are born alone. If we need company, then we would be born with that. Yes, it’s good to talk and share, but there is no compulsion that someone should listen.

Me:  I mean you are right, but if we stopped this it is not correct. Listening is the only selfless thing you can do.

John: Sorry to burst your bubble, but you couldn’t be more wrong. Nothing in this world is selfless, not a damn thing. It can be any task you do, and it’s same for all human beings. If you really care for them, you wouldn’t call it an act. You will call it to care, and care is not an act my friend.

Me:  You may be right, if they stopped listening, you wouldn’t care for them either, and the world turns into a big chaos.

John: You are wrong again, why would you stop caring if someone has stopped for you? You are the same guy and is not doing business in a relationship. You should be the same, no matter what. 

For example, two days ago when you were busy, I have updated status on being sad, I have got 70 views on that, but I got zero texts on asking what is wrong. But if any of them feels sad, I will be there for them.

Not because I’m selfless or something like that, that is because it is the way I’m and I really care for them no matter what. And when things become heavy, I directly talk to a few people whom I believe care for me.

This perspective of John has opened new doors of thinking for me in life. In the end to conclude, Loneliness is never a crave for attention, is a cry from for listening years. The least thing lonely people would want is attention. If you have an opportunity to listen to them, do listen. That helps them a lot. 

HaHa! What an idiot you are.
Did you expect some niceness in return?
It is you that is bothered with niceness.
But not the world.

How naive of you!
To think that being nice,
Will make people nice.
The quality of nice,
Is nothing but a mirage.
They do think they are nice,
You soft skinned snowflake.

Truth is not the world is harsh.
It is you that is soft.
So small is your threshold,
So ignorant are you.

All the knowledge and nothing works.
All the trials and no one cares.
Everything is a psychological construct.
You reap what you sow,
You see what you think.

It never did mean that you sow niceness
And you reap niceness.
Whatever you sow,
Something you will get.

Wasted analogies,
Useless metaphors,
Generalising the world into meaningless sentences.

How logical is the comparison?
Is it just poetic but not real?
Of course not, how can sowing relate to life?
Yes of course, what you sow that you reap.

But it is not such in life,
It is only factual in sowing.
In reality you only control only what you do.
You do not control what the other does.

Hence, it doesn't necessarily mean that you sow what you reap.
Even metaphorically, it is nonsense.
You sow what you sow,
People sow what they sow,
What reaps, reaps.

Don't tell me now,
That you reap what you sow,
Because you don't know,
You can not know.
How naive can you be,
To think what you sow reaps.

Heck with rhymes,
Heck with structure.
Heck with rhetorics,
Heck with poetics,
Heck with quotations,
Heck with books,
Heck with learnings,
Heck with morals,
Heck with manners,
Heck with niceness,
And heck with you.
Oh naive, idiot!

In the last science article, we have understood the concept of Particle Physics. In this article, we will understand the concept of “Entropy” and the Importance of it. 

Entropy: In simple terms, the entropy of a system is the measure of the amount of energy that cannot do work. It is a measurable physical characteristic generally associated with a state of disorder, randomness, or uncertainty in science terms.

The concept of entropy presents a deep insight into the area of natural change for various daily events. Not only in science, but entropy also helps us to understand the day to day events of our life.

The entropy concept was introduced by a German Scientist named “Rudolf Clausius” in the year 1865. Entropy came into existence to tackle a mathematical formulation to explain a body changes through heat transfer between that body and different environments.

Entropy applies to every part of our lives. It is inescapable, and even if we try to ignore it, the result is a breakdown of some kind. Indeed understanding entropy guides to a drastic difference in the way we see the universe.

Entropy also paved the way to one of the most Significant laws of physics. Entropy is one of the vital parts of “Second Law Of Thermodynamics.”

Second Law Of Thermodynamics: The second law states that “The total change in entropy of a system and its surroundings will always increase spontaneously.”

In simple terms, if no energy enters or leaves the system in all energy transfers, the state’s potential energy will always be less than that of the original state.

Applications Of Entropy:

  1. Understanding the surface time contributions of string theory. To learn more about string theory, click here.
  2. Measuring and manipulating the system based on the data gathered by computation in quantum physics. To learn more about quantum physics, click here. 
  3. Understanding the concept of Entropic Gravity to understand the concepts of relativity. To learn more about concepts of relativity, click here.
  4. Studying how dark matter is distributed among galaxies. To learn more about dark matter and dark energy, click here.
  5. Calculating why positrons repel each other in antimatter. To learn more about antimatter, click here.
  6. Studying the laws of thermodynamics on the event horizons of black holes. To learn more about black holes, click here.
  7. Grasping the gravitational properties of exotic properties in wormholes. To learn more about wormholes, click here.
  8. Learning why system leads to disorder in chaos theory. To learn more about chaos theory, click here.
  9. Deriving the concepts of particle position in particle physics. To learn more about particle physics, click here.
  10. Understanding deeply about civilizations on the Kardashev scale. To learn more about the Kardashev scale, click here.
  11. Learning on how a car runs by converting fuel into heat.
  12. To transmit a message via any channel. 
  13. The digestion of food, the digestion, is how food converts to energy for the body.

Thus the concept of entropy is very very important to understand many concepts of physics and real life.

It is not so hard to write. All it takes to write is a mere will to write. The words start flowing, the letters start pairing up; making sentences. But what makes a sentence more than just readable? If one is a writer or if one is an enthusiast or an avid reader, it is no surprise to wonder what makes certain writings so attractive? How can some writings speak more than the words written? Now, that’s what makes the distinction between great writing and average writing. 

But it is a fact that when one is writing, they should not be bothered about the gradations and ranks of their level of writing. They should be worried about conveying what they want to write in a way that it is best understood. It’s all about how one writes the ‘what’ they write, and in a way that it is understood the way it is intended.

A writer can worry about the language later, it is the idea that acts as a soul of any writing. It is only common to see some writings that appear grammatically sound but speak nothing. These writings have complicated terminology that suits the likes of the elite, the classy terms. But when one cuts into the body of this content, there is no soul. There is no idea behind these sugarcoated words.

The content that a writer writes can be anything. It can be an underwear brand that the writer writes for, it is nothing inferior. No subject is inferior when it comes to writing. If one is writing about underwears, they must not make it sound inferior. It’s a necessary thing that we all wear, and there is nothing to be ashamed of. Similarly, there are many subjects writers feel ashamed and stop doing their jobs to describe them better.

Take ‘anarchy’ for example, or in the modern-day, a ‘feminist’ is turning into a negative term. It is the writer that should take the blame for not describing the term correctly, or defending the negative use of the term. The writer takes the job without understanding the power held. What is written is never forgotten. It’s an idea that a writer implants into brains through letters and words.

It is not a mere sugarcoated paragraph that one writes. It’s a seed that can create a tree of thoughts giving birth to different seeds in the reader’s mind. Never forget that it is the idea that is before the presentation. Presentation is equally important too. It is a mutual dependency. Without an idea, even a fantastic presentation appears soulless. And without a proper presentation, the idea appears raw and naked. 

We have reached a point, that we don’t like things naked. Even if we did, we would never agree. The first instinct at the sight of the naked is to close one’s eyes regardless of their feelings towards the visual. Such is the scenario of an idea without an adequate presentation. Think of the presentation as ‘idea presented in as understandable and as acceptable to common mind’.

 We might have the urge to write something unacceptable, but if one desires a reader to comprehend the writing. The compromise of writing in a common language happens. If the reader is not a concern, if it is a journal that one writes; only then can one be excused for the crime of writing something incomprehensible.

Write to speak; to communicate. We always have our personal diaries to write things that only we understand.

In modern life, where we have an imaginary race with time, learning the things we want to has become difficult. One of my physics hero “Richard P Feynman” has got a technique to learn things in a speedy yet efficient way.

Richard P Feynman was one of the best physicist known to the world. He won a Nobel prize for fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics in the year 1965. If you want to learn more about quantum physics, click here.

Feynman is also known as the “Great Explainer” in the realm of science. When a person is a great explainer, his learning technique must be excellent. I have personally used this technique, and the results I have been getting are fantastic.  

Feynman’s technique is not just to learn maths or science. The method can be used to learn anything fastly and very efficiently. There are four steps involved in this technique, and they are as follows.

1.Write Down The Subject: Take a paper or any smart device (Laptop or a phone), and write the title. After that, write everything you know about the topic. If you find new information, keep adding to your topic. Make 

sure to include as much important information as possible.

2.Teach It To A Kid: This is one of the most essential and exciting steps of this technique. Note down as much as you can and teach the concept to the kids. If you do not have any toddler, make your brain a six-year-old one and start teaching it.

Teaching kids has many implications, and that has many advantages. One of them is attention span; kids have the least attention span possible. So you can treat the explanation as an elevator pitch and explain the concept in as less time as possible.  

kids also ask many questions when they learn or see something. By getting more questions, you will research more on the subject to find answers. By doing that, you will understand it deeply and cover all the basics.

3. Identify The Gaps: This is the time where the actual learning starts. Identify all the gaps like what did you miss? What didn’t you know? So on and so forth. Identify all the gaps that are missing in your learning and make a list. After this, go back to your sources, find answers for them and keep repeating until you are convinced. 

4. Organise And Simplify: After identifying and filling the gaps, organise all your learning. In the next step, simplify the language of the notes you have written. If you can express the concept, you have learnt in the simplest words possible, my friend you have learnt it through and through. 

The above method is Feynman’s technique of learning anything. As I said above, I have been using this since the past few weeks, and I got some fantastic results. If you have any other methods, do let us know by emailing us or messaging us on any of our social media platforms.

Before we end, I wanted to wish you all a very Happy New Year from my friends and me at Penfluky. Stay safe, be smart, keep an eye on your loves ones and happy learning. 

Paava Kadhaigal, an apt title for such a wonderful anthology. This anthology speaks about four different stories with one common emotion, the honour killings. Directed by Sudha Kongara, Gautham Menon, Vetrimaaran and Vignesh Shivan, one story each. This is an anthology that portrays humans’ cruelty to sustain the honour in society.
The series begins with a beautiful graphic story that briefs all the tales in a nutshell played with a soulful BGM.

The concept-

As the series runs around the concept of honour killings, each story tells a different tale of why and how honour killings happen. Though centuries have passed, specific ideas still aren’t passe like “honour killings”. It is a beautiful concept to talk about as people should progress as the world is progressing.

The narration-

Every story has been narrated with a subtility that one can’t ignore the reality behind such stories. But one story that didn’t strike the heartstrings was the story directed by Vignesh Shivan. It stands last when compared with other stories of Paava Kadhaigal.

All angles study-

While the stories got us goosebumps with the hits and punches of emotions, some memorable scenes need light.
In the first story, Kalidas Jayaram plays Sattharu who just wooed us with his performance. The dialogue, “People either got irritated if I go close or came close to me with lust, no one ever hugged me with love!” brought a massive thought into how trans people are treated in society. Kalidas just lived through every tear he shed for the role. The song, “Thangame Thangame” still echoes in my ears.

In the second story, Jyothi, played by Anjali, expresses a deep emotion when she cries before her sister’s dead body.

In the third story, the chemistry between Mathi and Satya played by Simran, and Gautam Menon perfectly worked. When they are happy to when they are sad, the shift of emotions and expressions portrayed a perfect couple.

In the fourth story, Sumathi, played by Sai Pallavi, performed exceptionally in the climax scene. The conversation between Sumathi and Janakiram played by Prakash Raj is heartbreaking.

There are a few parts that are questionable in the series. Every swear word used in Paava Kadhaigal is women-centric. Where such liberal stories are spoken, these words shouldn’t hinder the audiences’ ears. We understand when they are used in anger, but story directed by Vignesh Shivan made a whole scene with swear words which had no purpose. The climax is an epic fail as there wasn’t a need to show that Jothi acted as a lesbian while she isn’t. It could have been better if the story had ended as if Jothi is lesbian.

That being said, there is too much to be told and consumed in this series. One cannot go without tears rolling in the eyes after watching Paava Kadhaigal. The foolishness of humans to have a hold of pride and honour in the name of caste, religion, status, societal standards should be stopped, and for what, Paava Kadhaigal is the answer!

On a Saturday evening, I completed my work and scrolling through my social media. Liking memes and just passing the time. A rare moment where the efficacy of my sadness it not taking over. After some time, there was a chime on the phone. 

It is my friend Charvi. She is one of the good buddies I have, and we talk regularly and a lot of stuff. If I feel low or want to share something, I’m pretty sure that her inbox is always open. The text says she has something important to talk and come to Instagram. I opened it, and here is how the conversation goes.

Charvi:  Hey. Hi, listen, I have something important to say.

 Me:  Yes, madame, at your service!

Charvi: Hahaha, okay this is important, listen carefully.

Me: You robbed a bank, and now the police are chasing you? 

Charvi: Yeah, I even got a cure for stupidity, but sadly its efficacy is only on humans. Sorry, can’t fix you. Now shut up and listen. 

Me: Lol, okay, go ahead.

Charvi: Okay, so my parents are findings options for me to marry. I don’t know that guy. I’m a bit nervous, and I don’t want to marry now. I want to stand up for myself, fulfil my dreams and then think of marriage. What to do? 

Me: Okay, I understand what position you are in right now. Marriage is must be mutual between two people. If you are not comfortable, tell them that you are not. If you have dreams, you must chase them.

Charvi: Yeah, I wish it is that easy. Me going to my parents and saying I want to chase dreams and don’t want to marry. Would they listen to me? 

Me: It is better to sit and talk before taking an important decision in your life. If you decide to marry, the person coming to your life will be with you for at least the next 40 years. So, think and talk in all the ways possible. 

Charvi: Yeah, I will gather up the courage to talk to them. Gosh! I wish this were easy. Why don’t we have ideal efficacy everywhere in life? If I don’t marry, I will make my parents unhappy. Why should it be like this?

Me: Well, to be honest, we humans created these boundaries. We feel to care for loved ones’ decision because we give value to them in our life. It varies from person to person. I’m sure you will come up with a way to convince your parents and follow your dreams.

Charvi: Easy for you to say! You always have people who care for you. You always tell stories about your friends and how they care for you. I feel jealous sometimes on you and want to be in your shoes.

Me: Lol, to be very honest, those days were gone. The error is on both sides. I stopped sharing the incidents that are happening, and ears who used to listen have stopped hearing. Now those eyes hate me and that ears don’t search for my voice. 

Charvi: Oh, shut up! You make this shit up in your brain. Your friends love you, and I have seen Instagram stories and stuff. Stop creating scenarios for yourself and be what you are. People who care for you love you.

Me: Well, to be brutally honest “no”. People who used to care for me don’t do that anymore. I cared for them even if they got a papercut. I used to ask how they were and used to talk. Recently I literally posted a suicide note article on my social media. No one gave a “fuck.” 

 Not only that I posted a lot of sad stuff, and I even posted that I was depressed. No one batted an eye, and I even went through some tests medically. They knew this and didn’t bother to ask what happened. These are the same people who said, “We are there” “we will talk to you no matter what.” 

Charvi: Oh my god! What happened? Are you okay?

Me: There is nothing new, the usual family issues. Adding to that, even my organisation hated me, to which, I was most loyal started hating me. I made a few mistakes, told apologies in all the ways possible. It hurts when you feel like you annoy the person who you respect you the most. 

Charvi: Oh, gosh! You must be devastated! I’m so sorry. How are you now? I’m sure you hate those people now.

Me: I’m okay, I guess, and I don’t hate them to be very honest. If I know they are having problems; I will message the same way and find out if everything is okay. It is not that I’m good or bad; it is just the way I’m. 

I respect those people without any tags and will continue to do so no matter what. The feelings I have for those people are not under business terms. It is under care, trust and love. That is the real efficacy of a relation.

Charvi: I wish I were not busy these days! I wish I would have talked to you. It’s okay; it is not too late. I’m here for you.

Me: Thanks for that, I know you are always there. Everyone says people should be self-sufficient, self-dependent and stuff. But I tell people should have to be able to self-hold themselves. When there is no one to hold your hand, you must be able to hold yourself and move ahead.

On the other hand, when I expressed these th0ughts through my writings they called me I was craving attention. I’m being a drama queen on this. I didn’t know this attracted attention until I read from their shoes. I was just expressing my emotions.

Yes it hurts, and it’s depressing but, if no one is ready to be with you or left you for any reason, you must be able to love and live with you. Even if you remove all the people and relations in your life, you exist, and that is a fact. This is what I believe the real efficacy of life.

In our day to day life, we might come across from many difficult situations. Some situations might be very tough to move on and find closure. Not only daily incidents, but even past trauma also affects us in finding closure.

By this, we will have a lot of physical and mental health issues. On the other hand, if we are not able to find closure, the trauma always haunts us, and that is never a good sign to find peace.

In this article, I will share a way to find closure and move on. Before we begin, I want to say this is my method which I’m following this method for the past two weeks and it helped a lot,

I designed this method in a few steps which are easy to follow. You can follow them and divert yourself slowly away from trauma. If you have any method, let us know by emailing us messaging us on social media. 

1.Finding An Acoustic Spot: First of all, find a space where you can sit and be yourself. It can be in your house, in your room, your chair or anything. It can be any location where you can sit comfortably. 

2.Collecting Moments: Once you are in your spot, start collecting moments. Write down the incidents that made you smile for the day. I suggest you do that at the end of the day so that you can write more things.

You need not literally write, you can type them on your computer, laptop, or you can install a notepad app and type them on your phone. Make sure to not forget even of the tiny things that made you smile.

3.Donot Maintain Duality: When you are in your zone, don’t maintain duality. Never think about the things that made you sad when you are in your spot and writing the things that made you smile. Just concentrate on collecting smiles.

4.Read It The Next Day: Once you have made the list of smiles read it when you are starting your next day. By this, you will start the day by smiling, which gives an excellent start to the day ahead.

Not only this, by smiling you release dopamine, endorphins and serotonin are all released into your bloodstream. By doing this, your body relaxes, and it also works to lower your heart rate and blood pressure. That is a perfect start!

4.Challenge Yourself: You can challenge yourself if you remember trauma or sad. For example, if you are at work and remember anything challenge yourself at doing work by keeping timers. By this, you will deviate from thinking about your sadness.

For example, if you generally prepare a ppt in 30 minutes, keep a timer and try designing it in 20 minutes. By this, even if you don’t meet the timer, you won’t lose anything, if you do, that’s good progress.

5.Solve Your Issues With People: If you are having any petty issues with people who are affecting your closure, solve them. Just apologise or accept the apology and accept them into your life. Talk to them and feel better.

It is one life we are going to live. What will you do with all the hate and guilt? How many days will you suffer or makes others suffer for some petty issues or misunderstandings? Clear them and keep moving.

6. Find More Time For Yourself:  You can try new hobbies that you are interested to try for a long time. You can get a pet, watch a good movie you want to watch, cook food that you like most etc.,

By doing the above steps, you will find a natural deviation from the things you are feeling sad. If you fixate on finding deviation from anything, you will keep thinking about it always so try deviating as naturally as possible.

You will also realise that you found closure within you and don’t need that particular person or feeling to find it for you. You are perfect and happy the way you are. Now that is called finding closure my friends.

From childhood, I have a dream of having best friends,
A relationship very awesome, and that never ends.
we would meet and have much fun together,
We would always watch out for each other.

Finally, One day I got excellent friends,
That is the end of my sorrows.
We used to always talk something,
We had no secret and shared everything.

I was happy and having the best time,
It was like watching the beautiful sunshine.
We used to have different conversations,
We are getting to know each other spaces.

One day, my friends left me because of a misunderstanding,
By that sight, I see my worlds inside my disbanding.
I couldn’t take what was happening,
The world to me is shattering.

I tried all the ways of apologising,
The pain in me started agonising.
Worst part of losing best friends is that you can’t tell them about it,
The pain in my heart is unbearable and has a different kind of hit.

I tried to message my friends on social media,
I went to type a message, but I had no idea.
Days passed by, and they started to forget me,
Without me, they are delighted clearly.

We are now not friends, nor enemies,
Just strangers with some memories.
Some tears are silent because we are too scared to cry out loud,
I have shared everything with them; all I got is a sadness cloud.

To my best friend, I love you no matter what happens,
If you could understand and forgive me, that is my happiness.
You were with me; I used to love me more,
Now you are not there; I don’t think I will like me anymore.

If you are happy without me, I’m ready to suffer,
I will bear the sadness, no matter how tougher.

We have been on this planet for around 5 to 7 million years. We have discovered a lot of things for survival, comfort, luxury, so and so forth. With the help of science, we were able to do tremendous things like space travel, mars rover etc. One of such achievements to unite everything or a universal theory is string theory.

String theory states that the fundamental elements of the universe are one-dimensional “strings” rather than point-like particles what we observe as particles are vibrations in loops of string, each with its characteristic frequency. It is like a guitar string when pulled instead of making sounds each vibration is a different particle. If you want to learn more on string theory, click here.

So you might be doubting string theory is science and on the other hand, philosophy is entirely different. How are they two linked? I will explain that. Before we proceed, I want to say that this is an observation of mine. I might be wrong, but this is the closest observation I could get out of science and philosophy for living creatures on earth.

As we all know, almost every human is born the same. The same number of organs, the exact size of organs, and we are very similar to each other in terms of functionality of the body in physical form. Some of the children are born with rare conditions, that is due to the evolution of cells in reverse order or mutation of cells. 

Cells are the fundamental structures of a human or animal body. A group of cells form a tissue, a group of tissues form an organ, and that creates a human body. If we study cell deeply and go the deep of it, a cell is a type of matter. The matter is nothing but a substance which has mass and takes up space.

If we divide matter further, we get atoms and sub-atomic particles. Therefore, atoms make up everything on this planet. If we take string theory into this, the sub-atomic particles which are not visible to the naked eye are considered as strings for better understanding of the universe and get a complete view of existence by science.

All the sub-atomic particles will have the same properties to prove this. This is at a physical level, and with the help of biology and science, we can confirm that it is identical for all the humans. But when we go to the mental level which is inside of humans, things change drastically as every human doesn’t think the same.

You can take any scenario, and humans tend to think differently and have different opinions. To prove that scientifically, all humans should be able to express the same emotions or feel the same about one scenario. But in an ideal situation that is not possible.

So, we take the help of philosophy to explain human behaviour. Philosophy tends to study peoples behaviour and attitude in different scenarios. Science and philosophy go hand in hand to help us understand almost everything about the universe. By using the same, we can study about nearly everything. 

The story is incredible so far, but what if we try uniting the concepts of science and philosophy? Things get a bit complicated, but let’s try it. Taking string theory from science, each particle vibration produces different frequency and acts differently. As everything around is the matter, we act according to its vibrations. 

According to science, we are all made of star material and space matter. So, if we still dive deep, the particles vibrating at a star which are considered as strings attach to the vibrating matter around us which are again vibrating strings. So on a giant scale, we look like puppets acting on this big canvas. Just imagine how fantastic it is!

The philosophy here kicks in in the form on conscious of the human and his nature. His conscious decides if he is reacting in the right away to the matter around him. By this, we can unite the science of string theory and philosophy of human to form the perfect approach to explain everything. 

In the past ten weeks, we have learnt ten science concepts which help us understand the universe in simple term. As we have reached ten parts for that, In this article, let us do something different. In the modern world where we are racing against time, the curiosity to learn is shrinking daily. and In this article, I will suggest some books which have simple language yet very efficient to understand complex concepts. 

Before we proceed, if you are looking for some good books to read during your free time, my good friend and the one of the fellow author wrote an article on that topic. You can click here to read that. I’m not ranking the books; I’m just mentioning them as they come to my mind.

1.) Brief Answers to the Big Questions: 

Written by one of the great minds of the world “Stephen Hawking”, this book is a must-have if you are interested to learn basic physics concepts. The book is straightforward to read and has that Hawking’s narration style.

Hawking’s narration is unique and has subtle humour to it. Therefore, it makes complicated topics sound much easier and enjoyable to read. The book is pretty straightforward, and it answers big questions very briefly and crisply. 

2.) The Elegant Universe:

Written by one of the renowned physicist “Brian Greene”, this one of the books that cover String Theory. In this book, Greene uses the best approach to explain string theory in all the fields possible. The book has an elementary language.

It is that simple that you will never get a feeling you are studying one of the most challenging concepts of physics. A must-have books if you are interested to learn more on string theory and the applications of it.

3.) The Feynman Lectures on Physics:

Written by one of the great physicists, of all time, Nobel Laureate and an inspiration to many across the world “Richard P. Feynman.” Feynman’s narration is so excellent that you will fall in love with that just with the preface.

Feynman has a quote saying ” if you want to master something teach it” and he is also known as “The Great Explainer.” So by that, you can figure out how good of a teacher he was. One of the best books you can read in the realm of science.

4.) Astrophysics for People in a Hurry:

Written by one of the best orators of the physics world “Neil deGrasse Tyson” this is one of the best books of astrophysics. You will fall in love with Tyson’s clear, funny and crisp way of presenting the topics.

Tyson covered almost everything from the origin of the universe in the shortest format possible. He covered all the topics that are important and required. One of the best books ever written on astrophysics and science.

5.) A Brief History of Time: 

Back to the great again, written by “Stephen Hawking”, this is one of the best sellers of all the time under science genre. Selling over 10 million copies, this is one of the most elegant books in the realm of science.

Hawking with humour and impeccable narration explained the concepts of time and space in the best possible manner. One of the must-have books if you are a science lover.

What is in debt may never die

Sitting in the old wooden cafe, Sir Donald McDouchey sips his chai tea and puts the teacup back on the table. He looks around and notices the waiter looking at him eagerly with a half-baked smile. “Touche, you said right. The chai touched my ganglia and gave my mind the best orgasm it had in years” he spoke out moving his lips forward and wiping the traces of tea drops off his whiskers for the royal douche he is.

The waiter bent a bow and went back to the kitchen that looks like an uncleaned coal factory. He picked a notepad from his desk and wrote ‘+1’ beside the name “McDouchey”. The list read ‘Compliments and favours’. The waiter noticed that it was the first compliment he had received in 6 months and dropped his jaw in disapproval. “De Spice” someone calls the waiter that brought him back to the world. “There is a gentleman waiting at table 6” the coarse voice, guided De Spice to the sitting area.

“Ego De Spice is free sir. You are not my favourite anymore” waiter turned towards the coarse voice with pride on his face. “What do you mean?” the rude man asked. “Sir McDouchey complimented me!” De Spice jumped and threw the pad at the rough man, and he caught it. The rude man looks at the pad with wide-open eyes “But.. but” he uttered. “I have returned your favour by gaining three compliments, sir. It took me one year to get three, but yes, I have done it” De Spice pulls his waiter suit tearing the buttons. He threw the uniform and went out of the cafe dancing on his toes.

When he made a move on the street, closing his eyes, he heard the sound of a wooden wheel on the rocky road. He opens his eyes to the sound of two horses. He is astonished to see a cart that is about to hit him, but he was immovable. Right when the carriage almost dashed into De Spice, a hand grabs his arm and pulls him over the pavement. De Spice trembles with this near-death experience. He turns slowly towards the hand that held him. To his surprise, it was the rude man, the owner of the cafe. The rude man had a grin on his face. De Spice wished he was dead instead of being saved by this grinning cunt. “No, No, No!” De Spice cried. “I saved your life, Monsieur Ego De Spice” the owner grinned again.

The rude owner threw the uniform on the face of De Spice as he falls to the ground on his knees cries a big “Nooooooooo.”

The Favourite

It was early spring, and Micheal sits on the cliff looking at the newborn leaves of the plants around the hilltop. Something distracts him, and it is none other than his friend, Carmen Isabich. “Heyyo, Michael Angello” shouts Isabich in a relatively low voice making an O of his mouth. “Not again” Michael sighed, looking at Isabich’s annoying face. “You don’t need to make a face, Is-A-Bitch, your presence is enough to annoy me” Michael shouts. “It’s Isabich!” Isabich yells and hits on Michael’s back. 

Isabich sits beside Michael and rests his head over Michael’s shoulder. “Is letting you rest your head on my shoulder a favour?” Michael asks curiously. “No!” Isabich takes his head back. “You are getting too commercial” Isabich frowns. “That’s how the world is, Carmen. You need to be cautious. You are 16, and you already took more than a hundred favours!” Michael complains. “Well, I repaid 87 of them” Isabich justifies. “Who are your favourites?” Michael asks curiously.

“Well, the baker guy is the most favourite one. He had lent me croissants and occasionally baguettes. I owed him 21 croissants and seven baguettes. I am coming from the shop finishing the last batch of croissants for him. That leaves seven baguettes. Wait.. err.. 21 minus 7 minus 5” Isabich keeps on counting using his fingers and subtracting digits in the air. Michael stops paying attention. He looks at the newborn leaves again, and he observes a caterpillar munching these tender leaves.

“Don’t you think it is annoying?” Michael asks Isabich. “Everything annoys you, Michael. I annoy you, the caterpillar annoys you, and even your father annoys you. Name something that doesn’t annoy you!” Isabich moans. “Shut up, Is-A-Bitch! It isn’t fair; this favour business. It should be a choice to return the favour. It is unfair to force people to return the favours” Michael explains. “My father says only anarchists and heathens who are lazy to live make such statements” Isabich frowns looking away from Michael. “I don’t think being either of them is a bad thing” Michael continues justifying his thoughts.

“It is terrible to think like that. If you take a favour, you should return it!” Isabich yells and pushes Michael a bit. “Oh yeah, please remind me of the number of favours I took, please Monsieur Karma Is-A-Bitch, why don’t you enlighten me!” Michael shouts sarcastically. “Just because you never took favours doesn’t mean you are a Buddhist monk. Should I remind you about your old man? About how he ran away leaving you all behind? I’m sorry but if he didn’t take too many favours and returned most of them at least, you would have been like me too, normal and not-weird!” Isabich slipped his mouth, but he regretted it instantly.

“I should never have said that, Michael. I’m sorry” Isabich tries to apologise. Michael couldn’t take the insult and gets up, but the mushy mud makes his foot slip. Michael slipped from the cliff but he hanged on to a rock. His upper body was still on edge, and he was losing his grip by each second. Isabich jumped to his feet and held Michael’s hands, applying pressure and making it easy for Michael to jump up. “Move!” Michael yells. “What the hell Michael!” Isabich yells. “I don’t want your favour!” Michael cries. “Michael! Fuck it! Let me help you. What if I become your favourite? It is no big deal!” Isabich tries to make sense out of Michale’s mind.

Michaels pushes away Isabich’s hand and tries to climb up using his tummy and chest. He moved his chest and abdomen like a caterpillar, distributing his body weight from his hands to his torso. Isabich stood there helpless because Michael is pushing him away. “I will help myself! If I die, I die. I don’t want any favours, and I will have no favourites that suck the life out of me. I won’t spend my life returning the favours” Michael shouts. “But Michael, it is not a big deal” Isabich cries with teary eyes. 

“Don’t you know that the favour for saving life burdens me with being indebted to you till you die? You become my forever favourite! I hate to return your favour by doing everything I can to you. I don’t want to lose my naturality by making you my forever favourite, Isabich!” Michael begins to lose grip. “Fuck you!” Isabich holds Michael’s hands. In the act of pushing the hands away, Michael loses his grip. He starts falling. “Live free, Mr. Karma Is-A-biiiiiiiiiitchh.” 

*Thud*

Isabich never looked back. He never climbed that mountain; returned his favours, and never retook one. He also made sure that there were no favourites. For the favours, he accidentally did to other people he never reminded them, because he didn’t want to be their favourite either. Isabich became the very lazy anarchist and the heathen that his father warned him. Sometimes he thought “Is Michael my favourite because he favoured me by passing this knowledge?” 

In the world of philosophy, there are concepts for each and everything. It is not silly; philosophy covers every small thing and helps us to think on a broader scale. You might have heard several times about the term “Lone Wolf.” There is a profound philosophy behind this.

Lone Wolf philosophy comes from the wolves which are away from the pack. They generally spend time alone instead of the group. A human lone wolf is a person who acts freely and likes to do everything on their own, favours solitude, expresses introversion, or works alone.

Lone Wolf theory asks for direct knowledge of the world. A predator charges in and destroys a community. Then a Lone Wolf takes control, drains the swamp, and returns things to a previous point of balance. You can compare this to the feelings rush in mind. After the rush, you sit alone and sort everything and go back to normality.

This is the trait of Lone Wolf personality. If we give a deep thought, we all have this personality. When everything goes out of the way, we prefer to sit down, be alone, sort the things and move on. Even after sorting things, we like to be alone or few people to find peace and eventually meet others.

Some exhibit this personality on a larger scale in their daily activities. They even embed this into their character and always tend to be alone. It can happen due to various reasons. They may have trust issues, family issues, some trauma, or it may be anything related to their personal life.

If we study the personality in deep, the Lone Wolves are very hard working. As they prefer to work alone, they work for longer times to complete the tasks. They also make mistakes and will be very quick to correct as they do not like to depend on others.

The research skills are excellent as the dependency is very minimal. Lone Wolves thrive on data and extract information very well. Countering to that, as the dependence on others is very minimal, the work might be slow. But the information will be elaborate and covers all the angles.

Lone Wolves are also excellent friends and listeners. They will only have a handful of people to whom they talk to, but they genuinely love and respect them. This is because they see people as people and not use them for needs. No matter what happens, they respect them and treat them with love.

Lone Wolves are also excellent team members. As their dedication is sublime, they tend to learn everything and be on top. Not because they want to, but because to avoid interactions. On the counter, as they are not expressive, they may not give correct opinions on ideas that are put forward.

There are not only positives but also negatives. They significantly overthink any situation. Due to this, they imagine scenarios that don’t happen and go the extremity of it. As they don’t talk much, they lack expression and couldn’t speak out on their perceptions or opinions.

As they remain isolated or prefers being alone, they are more susceptible to depression. They are also sensitive towards various health conditions like trauma, insomnia, bipolar disorder and even worse schizophrenia. Mental health conditions mainly affect them due to lack of expression.

This is the basic understanding of the Lone Wolf philosophy and how humans express it by their personality.

In our everyday life, most of us tend to question our existence. Questions like “why do I exist?” “Why should I suffer in this existence?” or statements like “I wish I never existed.” “My existence is worthless.” I think we are doing it in the wrong way.

Firstly, let us state the facts. We exist and that it the ultimate truth. You can deny, question and do everything, but we exist, and you cannot deny that. You were the fastest sperm to reach the egg and you are born, and you live. No matter how much denial you have, it doesn’t matter. The point is you exist. 

You can prove your existence by science, spirituality, religion or any medium possible. You can take any science book from beginner to advanced or any religious book of any religion. They explain human existence. 

Now, as we are on the same level, lets us ask the correct question. How do you exist? Yes, the question is slightly weird but give it a thought. Well, the thing is there is no universal theory on how a human should or will exist. Because we all are just leading the life.

Yes, many of us may disagree, but we are leading a life not living it. Because we are dependent, we cannot live even one day without depending on others. From the milk in the morning to the bed in the night, someone has helped us to live in a better way. 

Not only the physical needs, but we are dependent emotionally as well. You might be having a rough day, feeling sad, feeling lonely and many more. We look for human contact so that we can share the same with them and probably move past it after sharing. 

The problem comes with emotional needs. I mean if a grocery shop provides you with the worst support you simply go to a different shop and buy groceries. You don’t go to the owner and ask what is wrong and have a talk, right? 

But when it comes to people, we tend to find out what is wrong with them and why are they not talking to us the way they used to talk to us. This is because people are not just objects, and you cannot replace them just like that. They have more value in our life than materialistic things. We tend to ask ourselves a lot of questions when they don’t behave the same way.

So the question of existence mainly comes when the people don’t behave with us the way they used to be. They may not speak to us for various reasons. You might have done something wrong, something they don’t like, or you might have hurt them not knowingly.

You start to question yourself and blame yourself for being stupid. Gradually, this fills up your mind, and there will be no space. Even the slightest of the things irritate you, and you want that person to speak with you. Eventually, you only feel sad or angry and go to trance and begin to question everything.

You want to avoid or not live in the moment, and ultimately you question your existence. I’m not saying this process is right or wrong; I’m saying the question is not logical. Yes, I understand it hurts very much, but clinging on to one emotion makes you lose everything. It devastates you on a large scale.

The person can be your friend, colleague, girlfriend, boyfriend, parents, siblings, close cousin; it can be anyone. You might have apologised tons of times for the mistake. You might not have made any mistake with your consciousness, or it may be you thinking that person ignores you or hates you. 

It can be anything, don’t question your existence or cling on to one emotion. It is not good at all. If you care for that person, you have to respect their decision of ignoring you. That is the essence of true relation. I have faced many in the past and started thinking the same recently.

By recently, I don’t mean days or months; I mean hours. and I stopped questioning why I exist and clinging to one emotion. I see the old joyful version of myself. I’m not saying to ignore the people who ignore you. I’m saying be the same you are with them but do give a value to yourself as well. 

In the end, you may love yourself or hate yourself, but you have to realise that you exist. If you genuinely respect and care for any other person, you should have the same respect for yourself. Not because of pity or something, but because you exist and that matters. 

How beautiful the horror you create,

To those who give you agony,

The tears that fall fill my heart,

Deep and dense they touch me,

The smile you hide but I do,

When you have a guilty pleasure,

Sometimes I fear if I am an animal,

As I hold the hunger to feed,

But then i realize it yet again,

I am a catastrophe beyond a nightmare,

But hey you! Are you guilty of having me?

Do I need to tell you that I am everywhere,

Hidden in the mask of niceness,

Laughing behind the white screen,

No matter how much you try,

I am something you can’t deny,

For the fact is you are made of two sides,

The angel and the devil!

Hey guys, This is Mourya. I’m writing a self-portrait today. For avid readers, you may know me as the creator of the character “John” and the guy who writes science articles. When I thought of writing a self-portrait, I was confused because I have no idea.

Yes, I don’t know what my actual portrait is. But I took it as a challenge and decided to write it. Generally, I take around 1 hour to write an article, before that an hour to research. But this one took almost four days and no research needed as it was about me. So this means a lot.

Before the self-portrait, I will say a few characteristics that may describe my personality in turn, express my portrait. My day starts at night, yes I’m a night shift warrior. My job is to get yelled for software of a device not working fine. I’m from the escalations department from one of the biggest companies.

It doesn’t just stop at yelling; it goes to cusses. The worst cusses a man would ever want to hear from a stranger. And I will be in that weird position where I can’t say anything. It just feels like I deserve all of that or I got used to it. In reality, I don’t as I value myself a bit.

I don’t like formality while speaking with my buddies. I prefer if anyone would talk to me with sarcasm, a bit of friendly trolling and stuff. It makes me feel that person is close to me. When you think a person is close, you don’t say “Hey is this the right time to call? You just call and talk to them. It feels genuine.

I like being honest, and people who are honest with me. If there is anything, I would love it if people came up to me and say it to my face. It feels like they really care. Without criticism and honesty, I believe we cannot grow in life. There has to be someone who can say the things as they are to you.

I like to divert myself when I’m alone. One of my main diversion is writing stories and creating music. I don’t know anything technical about music. I open the software and add random tunes to it. Other than that, I listen to songs or message my friends or listen to standup comedy. Those who are free reply back and we have fun.

If I cannot find diversion for myself, I will go deep down into thoughts in a dark and closed environment. Once I spent six hours in a dark and closed room thinking about random stuff. My mind is always in my room, and I spend almost 22 hours a day in it.

No one talks to me in the house due to shift timings and other things. Even though I live with my family, I do my chores like cleaning, cooking and other stuff. I tend to apologize a lot due to sorry syndrome I got from PTSD (Post-traumatic stress disorder). I only do this if that person is important to me, and I mean every apology I say.

If anyone asks if something is wrong, I will use the phrase “sab changa si” it is a Punjabi ( a language of India) phrase which means “everything is fine.” But if anyone comes and asks, how are you? I may shed a tear. I can handle other emotions but, cannot hold it when the issue is sensitive.

A lot of shitty things happen with me daily, but I tend not to share them with anyone. Not because of privacy or something, but if any sane person listened to them, their day would be wasted. I tend to keep them myself and keep pushing the day.

I got some fantastic friends, some of them I made recently and some for the past eight years. I have got only a few, but they are just a simple text or call away. I adore them and respect them, and I believe they do the same. I share almost everything except this daily shit with them.

This lockdown has a significant impact on this self-portrait, especially November month. There are a lot of sleepless nights and cries, and I got to see life from different angles. I’m proud of myself that I survived that. It was like a never-ending nightmare personally and professionally for straight 30 days.

Summing up the self-portrait, sitting in a closed room, I have always looked for closure. The ideas from my mind bounced flew and hit the closed walls. They jumped right off and hit my brain again, and I’m sad again. I think I’m a regular guy who always finds emptiness or has emptiness. It must be one or the other.

A bit good if I give it a deep thought. I used to smile by looking myself in the mirror. I used to like the genuine nature in that. Its been almost seven months I saw any mirror. I rarely do that. In reality, we exist, but if you ask to portray me, I wish I never existed in this reality. I don’t think it would have made much of a difference to anyone, but I’m done being sad for myself.

But I exist, so that is my Self-portrait—a tragic guy working on himself. Still looking for closure but couldn’t find any. A colour less dead canvas where no one wants to look. I do not like myself like this. Honestly, none will like a whiny guy. But I’m working on myself and hope to see the light on the other end.

Well, I always have this tendency to slip on some of my personal experiences into my stories, poems and every article I write. But today, we have all decided to write a direct self-portrait. So, not only will I be writing my personal things and I would also be accepting that it is indeed personal! Well, I’m cool with the former, but the latter is what makes this topic interesting! I would talk about how I told too many lies and how I am quite opposite of that now: honest!

I will begin with sharing how I feel about my lies and manipulation. Being a liar and manipulator was not a big deal for me. Since I started remembering things, I have always been a fiction writer. I grew up reading stories, watching movies and something made me write stories and imagine fiction through real life. And I pretty much used this skill vocally to manipulate people and get what I want. 

Well, I know that it sounds creepy, but I never did harm with my pathological lying. There were times when I lied everything about me to strangers and I would find it amusing the way I construct these lies with partial truths. I love telling lies, I think it is an art that only few can truly master. I have reached a level that I could almost lie anything to get what I want. And that’s when I realised that it will continue to be toxic!

I was too quick on my senses and put a barricade to my habit of manipulating people into things for myself. Not because of some care towards the society or something like that, but because I just lost the kick in it. It made my life easier, like using cheat codes. It also did complicate my life a bit, because I had told different lies to different people and I frequently forgot which part I lied. At one point, when I saw the void. I realised that nothing is of any value. And I just preferred crude honesty.

I didn’t see the point in lying anymore. Because honesty is a virtue that only few possess. It is not like everybody is a lying piece of shit, but the euphemisms and diplomacy kill most of the truth in a sentence. I found a kick in the ability of being pathologically honest. I found it interesting when people get surprised just for being open about everything.

By 16, I have turned into this thing who is honest to a level that I sometimes freaked and grossed out people. But I kept loving it. Sometimes my inner demon still asks me to lie, but I choose not to, because there is no fun in it. I know the consequences of lying and manipulating, they alienate yourself from you. One fine day there will be no true self in you and you will face the void like I did. And trust me, the feeling of ‘having nothing of my own’ troubles one to an extent that they would find no kick in living.

If I lose, I lose. If I win, I win, and If I am a cunt, cunt I am! Nothing’s gonna change what I am, regardless of me hiding it and lying about it. So, there is nothing that can stop one from being themselves. It is the proudest and most fundamental thing a conscious being can have- the feeling of being oneself! So, years since I have left lying for no reason. And to be honest, I just love doing things that make me feel the ‘hit’, the kick! I have been telling this frequently, so I would end this note by stating one of my favorite slogans. “Find yourselves, respect yourselves and find your own kick!” Because no-one else will do anything for you, it is your mistake to expect someone to. 

In the last article, we have learnt the concept of “Particle Physics”. In this article, lets study the concept of “Kardashev Scale.”

We as a human race has faced many disasters and calamities. Natural calamities like earthquakes, floods, volcanos etc., Therefore, it is safe to assume that our ancestors have struggled a lot.

There are also good things that are going for us. Good things like space exploration, mars rover, vaccines and medication for few deadly diseases etc. We were successful to use science for our luxury and development.

What if, there was a scale to track the development of science and the chaos caused in the world. A scale would be awesome to measure it. One of the scales is “Kardashev Scale.”

Kardashev Scale: The Kardashev scale is a  hypothetical scale for measuring a civilization’s technological advancement based on the amount of energy it has available to it. In other words, the Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization’s level of technological advancement based on the amount of energy they can use.

In 1964 a Russian Astronomer named “Nikolai Kardashev” came up with this idea. He theorized that a civilization’s technical advancement runs parallel to the amount of energy that the civilization is able to harness and manipulate. Therefore, the more energy that a society can produce, the more technologically advanced they are.

The formula of the scale is K = (log10[P] – 6) / 10 

Where K = Civilization’s Kardashev.
P = Power It Uses, In Watts.

Currently we are 0.7 on the scale. By using the above formula, Kardashev defined three types of Civilizations. They are,

Type 1: If we can use the energy of the entire planet then we are on Type 1 civilization of the Kardashev Scale. In other words, we must be able to use all the energy that is produced on our home planet.

Type 2: If we can use the energy produced by a Star, then we are in Type2 civilization of the Kardashev Scale. In other words, we would be colonizing stars and other planets and start living on them.

Type 3: If we can use the energy produced by a galaxy, then we are in Type 3 civilization of the Kardashev Scale. Man, that is a lot of energy!

Kardashev gave only three types of civilization. However, using the formula given by him, scientists were able to create four more. They are.

Type 4: If we can the energy produced by the universe, then we are in Type 4 civilization of the Kardashev Scale. Just imagine, the energy produced by the entire Universe! Goosebumps isn’t it?

Type 5: If we can use the energy produced by multiverses, then we are in Type 5 civilization of the Kardashev Scale. You will have the ability to jump around all the universes and have fun!

Type 6: This civilization is outside of the realm of science. If you are able to control space , time , create universes for fun then we are in Type 6 civilization of Kardashev Scale. It’s crazy isn’t it?

Type 7: This is like omnipresent and omnipotent. You can do anything, there are no limits. Here is the only imagination is your limit to imagine. There are no boundaries.

The Kardashev Scale is one of the important theory to conceptualize the future of Science.

In the world we live in there are many weird things that happen around us. We cannot know all of them, but we sure do see a few and feel bizarre. We all use a mirror to see our reflection. The mirror is like a common household item in every house. However, what would be your reaction if you see a mirror in an office work desk?

You would feel that person is self-obsessive and needs a mirror even while working. Or you may think they are protecting themselves from intruders and stuff who come from the back right? What if I tell you it was the idea of the company to install a mirror at the work desk? Seems a bit odd right? What if I tell you that they installed it on all the desks. It is weird, isn’t it?

No matter if an employee is working for a company, they have their personal life. They have the freedom of expressing their emotions. For instance, a person might be having a rough day at home or might be feeling low. It is okay for them to be in silence, not talk to anyone and still keep working. It is not like you should always smile and keep working right?

If you agree with me, then I got one of the bizarre incidents which personally shook me to the core. Recently corporate giants started installing mirrors at employee work desks so that if they are sad they can simply look into the mirror and “Smile.” First of all, I didn’t get it. I thought what is the need for that? But when they shamelessly said to keep a good face before client, I couldn’t even speak.

This mirror thing has now entered almost all parts of the world, and it is making me very sick thinking about it. This is mainly seen in the customer service department. The organisation specifically states that “Don’t worry if you are having rough customer guys, just end the call, look at the mirror and smile. Then take the next call.” I mean is it not enough that you suck their blood and sweat and give salary which is equal to peanuts? You have to turn them to robots and control their expressions?

We all work to pay the bills and bear the finances. Some of us may have passions, but I’m sure not customer care person would want to do that job. Who would want to get cusses and yelling’s for nine hours in a day? The corporates are not ready to stand up the employee and say to the customer not to be rude or behave professionally. But they want a human to control their sadness and smile.

This is the violation of basic human rights of an individual. Why hire humans and make them do this? Just automate all your processes and get your work done by robots. Sure, the customer has rights and all and they deserve the service they need. But it doesn’t matter if the employee is happy or sad. They can have a rough day and they have all the rights to express their feelings.

If you have faced this situation or going to face, my friend you are a hero and an inspiration. Just hang in there and you will have the best days coming!

With the world growing at a rapid pace, it is important to keep ourselves updated. It is very crucial to know what is going around us so that we can be aware of it. Reading or watching the news is one of the best ways to know about what is happening around us. Recently people are reading the news out of social media, especially WhatsApp.

WhatsApp is a social media platform meant to communicate with loved ones and have a good time. It is also great for group conversations. But some “experts” started forwarding messages as news which are created by some dumbheads to have fun.

They also have the other name called “conspiracy theorists.” In this article, let us talk about the most pathetic WhatsApp forwards which are called the news. As the world is suffering from a pandemic, a vaccine or a drug is necessary for it to go back to normality.

Bill Gates through is foundation called “Gates Foundation” has started a research on vaccine. In 2015, Bill Gates talked in a ted talk about the future wars and how it can include bio weapons. Then some dumb head who had no work to do said Gates is a part of corona virus pandemic.

They have also spread the news saying his vaccine has chips, which watches people and their moments and controls them. Imagine a scenario, we humans are a population of 7.8 Billion people. Each and every one of us needs a shot of the vaccine to protect ourselves from the virus.

If Bill Gates really wants to insert chips in us to control us, he needs the same population as a staff to monitor us. This is basic common math which my nephew can do, and he is 7 years old. This is like basic common sense and math anyone can do, and their theory can just disappear like that whoosh!

The other fake news forward on WhatsApp is from the country of India. There came a forward saying Government is spraying pesticides over people to protect us from the virus. Many of them thought it is true and shut their doors. Even I was the victim of it, the message came in summer and it was a hot day. Boy, the sweat that day was unbelievable.

If the virus dies just by washing hands with soap, why on earth would the government need to spray pesticides. Any person who passed 5th-grade biology can understand this. Therefore, these people who send these forwards on WhatsApp are dumber than children or have absolutely zero knowledge of science.

The other is also from the India. The Hon’ble prime minister of India asked all Indians to clap their hands to honor and salute frontline workers for their service. Poor guy just wanted to show that the country is together to fight the virus. But our WhatsApp experts went to a laboratory and conducted experiments.

The messages like “the science behind clapping is that with the sound and vibrations can kill the virus in the air.” By reading this even my neighbour’s cat said: “what the fluff?” I mean how did these guys even pass schooling? I’m sure their IQ test would be negative. After that, most of the population believed that and forwarded the same.

There is one more legendary WhatsApp forward from India. Again the Prime Minister asked to lit lamps to show the unity of the country. However, online scientists got another theory. They said “With the heat from all the lamps, the atmosphere temperature would increase by 2 degrees and that will kill the virus. According to science, if the temperature of the earth rises by 1 degree, one by a third of the ecosystem will be extinct.

When I saw that temperature will be increased by 2 degrees I lost it. That is the worst forward I have ever seen. Not only these, there are many more of these which circulate in WhatsApp. People believe in this and go gaga over things. There is a way to decrease this so that less bull shit flows in the social media.

When you receive a forward, open google type it and read the news section. The news you see over there is real and even the news channels provide proofs to cross-check. There are also some websites that do a fact check of news for you. Finally, The government is way too busy and are not in a mood to keep feeding you false news. Wake up and be a responsible user. It would be really awesome if there is a test for people to use the internet.

He woke up to the smell of coconut oil. “Mama” he yelled in his sleep. His eyes are still shut but he feels irritated. He wants to sleep more but the coconut smell is irritating him. “Mama, stop” he yelled as he opened his eyes. There stood a beautiful lady who looked similar to his mother. But he doesn’t know who she is. He doesn’t understand what she is doing in his room with his mother’s looks and his mother’s oil. “Where is my mama?” he asked her. He feels invaded in his space. And he only wants to see his mother right when he wakes up. “Shhh” she patted his head. “Sleep, daddy,” the woman said as he went back into the slumber. 

He woke up again and he was in a different room. His father was smoking a cigar, it was his study room. He walked up to his daddy. “Father, when did you come?” he asked eagerly. His father brushed the kid’s hair. “Right when you fell asleep on my desk, slugger” he tickled the kid in the tummy. The kid ran into the hallway screaming “Mamaa” and his mother answered from the garden. He rushed to the garden and he saw his mom plucking the weeds out of the bushes. “What is it Krishna?” she asks annoyed. “Mama, did you know papa is back?” he asked curiously. “Yes, I know my dear, why don’t you show papa your new toy you bought?” she brushed him away. Krishna rushed to his room and kept searching for his new toy. 

After a lot of throwing the things around, he finally found the airplane toy that he was looking for. He held it in hands with pride and ran to his father’s study. He saw his mother weeping, a bit older than she was supposed to be, and holding his father’s hands. “Mama, what happened?” he asked as his mother pointed to Krishna and said “Why don’t you think about him?”. Krishna’s father stood from the chair “You can’t use him as defense every time, Sarala! He will be 21 this year!” he yelled. “Dad, I’m eleven” Krishna defends, but his voice came out rather coarse. He doesn’t understand how his voice is so coarse. He looked in the mirror that is beside him. And he had a moustache and a goatee. “But, I was just eleven a few moments ago” he said and turned back towards his parents.

His mother looked rather old, like she was 60 all of a sudden. “Mama, what’s happening?” he asked as she looked at him with despair in her eyes. “The dementors are coming” she said pointing to the window. Krishna moves to the window. He sees scary shadows filling his garden. He sees his own reflection in the windows and he is back 11 again. A dementor knocks on his window and he closes his eyes screaming loudly. He turns back screaming to see his mother and father quarrelling. “Mama there is a ghost outside” he shouts pointing at the window. “You are too old to be scared of imaginary things, Krishna” his father sighs. Krishna turns back to the window only to stare at his 21-year-old’s reflection. 

He turns back to his father and is taken back looking at a black coffin and his old mother sitting beside. “What happened, mama?” he asked, trembling with fear. Random people in army uniforms entered the room and covered the coffin with a flag. The soldiers stood in a line in the room and they shot their guns in the air to pay respects to Krishna’s father. Krishna worried about the roof and looked above. It was blue sky and he turned down to realise that he had mud under his feet. He was standing in his garden where the rites of his father are taking place. The soldiers were going away and he followed them. “Don’t Krishna”, his mother yelled. But something pulled him with the soldiers. The soldiers rallied outside their gate and it was mayhem out there.

The planes were bombing around and the soldiers were camping, unloading guns from the crates. “Here” a soldier threw a rifle at Krishna. Krishna caught the rifle and took cover. “Charge!” the major yelled. “But, I’m just 21,” Complained Krishna. “You are 32 now, Captain Krishna” a soldier patted his back. “Krishna” his mother called him from behind. Krishna turned back and his mother was standing at the gate, and he ran to his mother and hugged her tight. His arms wrapped her legs. She lifted him up and threw him in the air and caught him again. “Coochie Coochie” Sarala chuckled and kissed Krishna on his cheek. His father, rather young, took Krishna into his hands and pointed towards the flag. “That’s the nation you will serve after me, Son” he said.

But the flag started turning black, like there is a black fire on the flag. The flag started vanishing into nothingness. “It is not fire” Baby Krishna yelled to his father. “Krishna” his mother called him from behind and he turned back. “The dementors, Krishna!” she screamed as she caught black fire on her. Krishna started running towards her but his knees started aching. His voice started trembling. He kept running towards her as she kept burning in the black fire. “Daddy” a voice called Krishna from behind. He turned back to see a young lady resembling his mother. “Daddy, let’s go” she yelled at Krishna. “My mother, she is being taken away into the void. I need to save her” Krishna yelled. 

“Don’t embarrass me in front of my friends, papa” she shouted angrily. There were a lot of kids laughing at Krishna standing beside his daughter. “Why are you laughing at me? My mother is going into the void, everything is going into the void!” he yells. “Papa!” the lady yelled. “You are not my daughter, I’m still eleven, how can I have a daughter” he yelled at her as he fell down. The lady came running and lifted Krishna. Krishna felt a piercing pain in his knees. In her eyes he saw his own reflection. His wrinkled skin and shaking face. He couldn’t accept it, he screamed hard. He stood up and started running. His body turned into an eleven-year-old boy. His daughter and her friends kept chasing him but they are old, they are twenty somethings. Can they outrun an eleven-year-old boy?

Krishna ran on the streets and entered into a building he found familiar. His old mother sat on the couch when he entered the door. “I was waiting for you, Krishna,” his mother opened her arms. Krishna hugged her tight. “Stay here, with me” mother said embracing him proudly. He felt as if the hug was squeezing him. Soon he feels choked. “Mama, leave me alone” he yelled and frees himself from her. There was a gigantic thud and he rushed to the window. The world is filled with dementors. They are putting up the black fire. And the black fire is sucking everything. “Mama, what is happening?” he yells. “They are eating your memories, Krishna! Please stay with me, I can’t move. Stay with me and accept the void” his mother opened her arms again.

But the ghastly creatures have bashed the door open. They sucked his mother into the void and pounced upon Krishna. They started sucking the life out of him. And they took breaks for each inhalation. And with each inhalation, they took things into the void. Krishna was holding the carpet hard, he doesn’t want to go to the void. The dementor inhaled him. But he was strong. With first inhalation, Krishna turned 15 and his eleven year old self went into the void. With the second inhalation, the 15 year old went in and Krishna turned 21. “No, Please. I want to remain young! I belong here!” Krishna yelled as his 21 year old got sucked in too. They kept on sucking the life out of Krishna till he turned 83. There was nothing left anymore. They sucked everything in the room.

They began with sucking the wallpaper. As they suck, there appears a black fire around the objects and the objects go into the void. The wallpaper went into the void and turned white. The inhalations of dementors grew and the room looked like a hospital room. And after everything went into the void, the coconut smell, it still exists. He couldn’t open his eyes anymore, he hadn’t got the power to keep them open. He closed his eyes as his daughter stood by him crying touching his forehead. “Stay, Daddy” she said. He overheard someone talking, maybe her husband. He closed his eyes, his hearing was going weak, sucked into the void. “Dementia, Dude.. He was suffering from Alzheimer’s for a long time. It doesn’t look like he is going to make it” he heard it faintly and he couldn’t hear anything anymore. And there was nothing, the void!

In the middle, in the middle
Where did you go?
Leaving me here,
Oh, mighty hawk, where did you go?

Come to me, come back.
Oh, dear mighty hawk!
For there is something at lack,
Without your talk.

Looking at the people,
In their busy lives,
I think I might tremble.
Are you roaming with your wives?

You were inside me,
When I needed you the most.
You showed me a way to see.
Without you I’m just a ghost.

How can you leave me?
In this faceless jungle.
Jungle with no trees or bees,
Filled with people who are very terrible.

Please, dear mighty hawk,
Come back to me,
For there is no one here to talk,
Only a waterless sea.

Hopeless bricks and ice cream sticks,
All around the world nothing but tricks.
You flew away from me when you saw those pricks,
With ties, and suits, these corporate dicks.

Where did you go?
Oh, mighty hawk!
Did it hurt your ego?
By their bad talk?

I lost you long ago,
But I cannot forgo.
In the search of my lost ego,
I set foot, ergo!

Did you leave yourself,
In the quest for something else?
Where are you now, why are you now? 
Have you any understanding of who are you now?

The internet has become a significant part of our lives. According to a survey conducted by Forbes in 23 countries, more than two-thirds of the people cannot imagine their life. India is leading the study with 82%. By the stats, it is safe to assume that the internet has become an essential commodity.

To access the internet, we need a browser and a search engine. Google is the most popular search engine with an 87.35% market share. In the following article, let us learn Six browser secrets that only avid internet users know.

1. Keyboard Shortcuts: There are plenty of keyboard shortcuts that make the browser experience intuitive and easy. Let us learn some of them.

● You can switch between the tabs without using a mouse or touchpad, just press and hold the Control key and the number 1 to 9 depending on the tab number you want to navigate. For instance, if you have more than nine tabs, you can navigate using Control Key and Page Up or Page Down.

● You can open the downloads window for the browser just by pressing the Control key and J.

● You can quickly delete browsing data by pressing Control Shift and D and clear it.

● Closed a tab by mistake? No worries, you can quickly recover by pressing Control Shift and T.

● You can quickly go to the URL bar for typing by pressing Control and K or Control and E.

2. As a note pad:   You can convert any browser into a note pad with a simple link. It will be handy for people who do not want to switch tabs, especially on the phone and do not want to install a new application. Enter the below code in the URL bar, and you can enter the text and save it as an HTML file.

code : data:text/html, <html contenteditable> 

3. Easy Email Compose from URL bar: You can compose an email from the URL bar directly without opening your domain website. It is very convenient to skip the part of opening another website, clicking on compose, and doing it.

Just type “mailto:” after the colon, enter the email address you want to send the mail. Your default email client will automatically launch with a compose window. You can type the Email and send it.

 4. Reverse image search: If you want images similar to the image you have, Google has an impressive feature for you. You can upload the image or enter the URL, and Google will find the pictures for you.

Just go to images.google.com; if you are doing this on the phone, select the checkbox beside Desktop Site from the menu (3 vertical dots). Now upload the image or paste the URL, and Google will find pictures for you.

5. Getting better search results: You can make a few changes and get better search results. Let’s see a few of them.

● You can get search results involving specific keywords. To do that, Use quotes (“) for a particular word in your phrase, and you will get it.

● You can eliminate results containing particular words. To do that, use the minus or dash(-) sign to exclude results for that word in your phrase. It helps to eliminate the search results of a particular website you don’t want. 

● You can get the documents of a particular file type. To do that, enter the topic you want to have a document for and enter “file-type” and the document’s extension (pdf or doc, etc.). By this, you will get the required documents for your search.

 6. Fun with Google: There is a lot of fun stuff you can do with Google as your search engine. Let us find them out.

● Open google and type “do a barrel roll.” You will see that the page will roll.

● Open google and type “Google Askew,” and open the first link. You will see the home page tilted.

● Open google and type “Google Gravity” and open the first link and see the home page fall!.

● Open google and type “zerg rush,” and open the first link and have fun playing!

● Open google and type ” Google Sphere,” and open the first link. You will see the home page in sphere mode.

● Open google and type “Atari Breakout” and enjoy the nostalgiac experience of the game!

● Open google and type “Google Pacman,” and enjoy the Pacman right on your computer with that classical music!

Conclusion:

With the world internet growing very fast and reaching millions of people, we have everything at fingertips. Not only the above six but there are many more secrets and hidden features that we can use and take the maximum advantage of the browser. So go out there and dig as much as you can. Have fun using the above features for your comfort and convenience.

Long ago there lived a mighty warrior,
The bravest and the most robust ever.
He is called the warrior of “Asherah sea”,
Any king before him would bend the knee.

His name is “Nakoa”, and they called him the great,
There are several stories to tell his might.
Whenever they talked about a hero there is his name,
There are no limits for his fame.

Once the king called him to send him on an adventure,
To find and recapitate the most valued treasure.
Nakoa accepted and started his quest,
He started his journey towards the jungle on the west.

There are many horror stories about that place,
No man got out of the jungle in one piece.
Some were killed or injured physically,
While some were tortured mentally.

Nakoa, after travelling for a long time decided to rest,
He found a place and decided to remove his armour vest.
There came a girl towards him running for his assistance,
Nakoa saves her from wild animals and asks her whereabouts.

She thanks Nakoa for saving her life,
She recognises Nakoa with the symbol on his knife.
She feels fortunate and tells that she is lost and from Boeotians class,
Nokoa asks her to stay and assures to help reunite with her race.

In the morning, they resume their adventure,
She feels that meeting Nakoa is her pleasure.
She walks ahead towards her race while Nakoa guides,
They reach a place where sunlight slowly fades.

She takes Nakoa to a place where it is filled with rocks.
Within seconds, Nakoa is surrounded by soldiers.
They surround him and are ready to kill him,
The girl leaves Nakoa and joins them.

Nakoa couldn’t believe it and is shocked,
He slowly realises that he is betrayed.
Nakoa takes his sword and fights like a warrior,
The sight of that shows why he is a real fighter.

He defeats them all with his skill,
His every blow was a sure shot kill.
He realises his mission and goes for treasure,
He finally finds it, and his happiness has no measure.

The king who ordered Nakoa also comes to the location,
Nakoa is puzzled but is very happy to see the king in action.
The king goes and hugs Nakoa in happiness,
Nakoa gets a feeling that he is paradise.

Suddenly there is a wound on Nakoa’s back with a knife,
Nakoa turns back to check and its the king who wanted his life,
There are praises all and cheers for Nakoa’s all over the realm,
The king couldn’t bear or tolerate it and decides to kill him.

The warriors and gods from the heaven shred,
As Nakoa smiles and rests there dead.

Desire to Date

Eager to explore me, I set foot into the world. I seek myself in reflections of other people. It is a trial and error method that I follow to know me. I explore people, see what they are and understand the differences between them and me. And that’s how I get to know me by removing everything that is not a part of me. And it is weird how I am desperate to know more people. It might be the winter, the season to date and romance.


It is almost as if I’m horny for conversations. Let me be modest; I’m horny too. I don’t know. I have never met some who claims themselves to be perverts, and people don’t speak these things out. So, I think I am a pervert, and I need to meet a pervert to see if I’m really one of them or maybe I’m different. And out of the angst and despair for being alone, I seek company.

I kept walking in this cold winter to find myself a good company. It is one night that I seek this company to know if this is what I want; trial and error. If the night felt warm enough, this is what I will have for the rest of my nights. Or at least, that was what my plan was when I began travelling. And after running into a couple of random people, I have come to know about this place. “Come and Date.” It is a pretty honest title for a site that allows its customers to date.

Come and Date


On second thought, I think they are selling their tasteless coffees and frozen french fries in the name of dating to attract young customers. But the winter winds and my lonely bed demanded me to check it myself. The board was short and straight; didn’t expect it to be this rushy. And it was filled with all sorts of people. And there was this guy who was looking at me with a smile on his face. I can never forget that smile. No one looked at me with this amount of light shining through their teeth when I walked in any door of my life.


He robotically came towards me. He handed over a menu which read ‘Single, Long distance, Horny, Playboy, Hit and Run’. “What’s hit and run?” I asked eagerly. “Oh! You are that kind. It’s been a long time” he sighed. “What is that type?” I asked, and he said “You avoid your emotional responses. You behavee like there is no connection between the people you sleep” he smiled. “I have never..” and he interrupted me with a big O shaped mouth. “You look twenty something. And you have never?” he asked. “It is what it is!” I said and gave a rather De Niro-ish expression to kill the awkwardness.


He looked at me curiously and asked “You wouldn’t dare! It is what it is?” he asked again, and I nodded. “Well, sir! In that case, you get a combo, you can try out everythign that’s on the menu” he signalled me to follow him inside. It was a dark room, and it reminded me of the interrogation room in Dark Knight. “Where are they?” I asked in a coarse voice. He laughed maniacally and asked me to sit down in front of a table. There was a lamp on the table, and yeah, I now felt like I’m in some torture room.

The torture room


He asked me to wait in the room, and he went out and clapped so hard. His clap killed the noise coming from different ladies. It was a relief to feel silence after a long time. “Ladies! There is a gentleman inside who have availed the combo pack! because” he paused looked at their faces. I can see his theatrics from the glass door. He looked like he was waiting for the drum roll. After a 30 second gap and an expression that looked like constipation, he finally uttered the phrase “It is what it is” he yelled.


The girls went gaga and formed a queue in front of the glass door. The first one in the row knocked on the door and looked at my face. It was quite awkward, but I signalled her to come in. She was feeling hesitant, so I initiated the conversation. “Hey,” I said, and I wish I told something more than that. She smiled, and her cheeks got red, she is blushing. I never knew someone would blush to look at me. “You are cute,” she said, and it pulled the strings of my heart. “My lonely nights are done, my arms can feel some weight on them,” I thought.


“Do you like pandas?” she asked curiously. That reminded me of Kungfu Panda. I began answering that question “Well, they are so cute..” I was about to finish as she interrupted me in the middle and held my hands. “Do you want to have sex with me?” She asked. I shook for the honesty, and I couldn’t say no, can I? “Of cou..” I was about to finish my sentence, but she looked at the entrance to cover her hesitation. A younger and bulkier dude walked in, and she stood up. She ran towards him, leaving me to sit in the chair like an idiot.

The Humiliation of a failed date


The next girl was not even looking at my face. She was looking all around the room and sat in front of me. She was looking at her nails, phone and everywhere else but not me. I couldn’t understand why did she even come in if she is not interested. I grew impatient, and I threw a Hello at her. She still kept looking at her phone. I threw in a second hello killing my ego. But the avoidance repeated. I grew impatient and, “Why are you even here if you are going to pretend like I’m not here?” I asked, and she gave me a cheap look. “Despo” she cursed, and she left.

Double Humiliation of a disastrous date


It was weird how I totally felt like a pervert for the first time in my life. And I wasn’t even behaving horny. The next girl, ah! she looks like a sweety she is smiling at me right from the entrance till she sat in front of me. She threw in a great hello, and it was warm. I greeted her, and we had an hour-long conversation, which made me forget there was a queue outside. I thought this one would warm my winter nights and maybe more than just one winter. “Let’s go to my place or yours, why to make them stand out while we both are going steady,” I said as I couldn’t hold it any longer. “Excuse me!” She gave me a cheap look”Did I say something wrong?” I asked as she stood up “I’m here for friends!” she yelled.

This blew my mind out. “But the board out there literally tells people to date,” I shouted. “Sorry, I don’t have such intentions” she yelled while leaving. I didn’t understand. Why was she standing in the line, and why did she wait to meet for me. Why did she talk with me more than an hour in a place that read “Come and Date” if she had no intentions? It was a horror show, and I don’t know If I can take any of them. I was genuinely afraid to meet the next person. But, my inner urge increased after looking at the queue. Maybe next one, I thought and called the next one in.

Prowess of Left and Right

This one was genuinely interested in me, and she kept talking to me. But I found no interest in her dialogue. I found the manual that is on my table more interesting than her. She was honest, open and looking for someone just like me. But I should like her, and only then can I really talk with her. She never gave the space for me to even speak. She was continuously speaking about her exaggerated adventures of early college days. Pretending to, listen, I kept on reading the manual. I understood that I possess some commands in here.

The manual says that if I yelled “left” the party sitting before me would walk away. I just want to try it, not because I want to hurt this person but I just her to shut up. She was talking about her days as a fellowship scholar as I shouted “left” and she left. I really liked it. Wish I would have read the manual before. The next person was about to sit, and I asked up straight “What are you here for?” She smiled at me warmly and said: “I’m looking for new friends.” I smiled back and shouted, “left”.

The Realisation

28 people came to a place called “Come and Date” to meet new friends. Are they really illiterate or just afraid to speak out about their feelings? They might just be looking for a filmy romance where two friends realise that they are in love. Or maybe they keep all these friends who always flirt them and the best flirter with the costliest gift or the one who impresses them the most wins their heart. I imagined a stage where the “just friends” princess was standing excited, and Alfred from Batman animated series was hosting the ceremony. “#BFF number 35, please come upon the stage for winning the heart of SweetyPrincess2179”.

I couldn’t take it anymore, I ran out, wept, and slept in my lonely room that speaks out gloominess. I feel embarrassing as I expect more of me as I thought I was self-sufficient. But here I go crying because of SweetyPrincess2179 who wants me to be a friend of hers to see would win the contest of flirtation. But I guess I’m out of the competition. I don’t think this is for people like me because I prefer honesty than this circus of constant impressions and flirtations. I would instead ask permission to kiss than fake my way to kiss.

If the price of being honest is eternal loneliness, so be it! Let me the Socrates of my Athens and drink the poison of loneliness to attain liberty from flirtation. But my heart still pulled me towards the joint. I just wanted to peep and see what’s going on. I saw that they renovated in a single day. They are now a 72-floor crowdy building, and I sat at the door, laughing. I was sweating from all the walking, and I lit a cigarette. My hair was messy and my shirt, smelly. The girls that go in are least of my concern. I don’t give a damn about what they think of me.

The Ultimate Resolution; the final date

After a smoke, right when I woke up to leave, I can smell a sweaty odour that was different from me. I turned back to check this messy person out, and it was a petite girl who looked intriguing. I don’t know why I just walked to her, and I liked how she was messy and natural. She didn’t give a fuck about impressions either. I don’t know why I said that, but I just went “How about a Mexican dinner? Taco and chill?” Now, this girl had never eaten a taco before, but she liked how I was raw, messy and most of all, direct. I understood how she liked me when I didn’t try to impress her. And I liked it when I understood why she liked me without even her mentioning of it.

“Why not?” she said. It was a relief, and I didn’t know that I could make it. We both left the area and started walking towards a Mexican diner. Now, I might come back here again, maybe it will take some time. But, I might, I don’t know. But while I was walking with her talking about tacos and movies, I never thought of coming back here. I felt like spending not only all my winters but also all of my monsoons and summers with her. And we walked into the diner while the sun just pierced the snows of winter.

In the last article, we have understood the concept of wormholes. In this article, we shall understand the concept of “Chaos Theory.”

Chaos Theory:  In simple terms, we can define chaos theory as the study of how tiny variations can have huge effects within a moving system. In scientific terms, chaos theory, in science and mathematics, the study of apparently random or unpredictable behaviour in systems directed by deterministic laws.

Most of us think that chaos theory is a philosophical term rather than a scientific or physics term. But we forget the fact that science is the study of everything. Like most of the revolutionary physics discoveries like the theory of relativity, quantum physics etc., the chaos theory is also born when classical laws of physics are questioned. Let us understand the history of chaos theory.

History Of Chaos Theory: 

The history of Chaos Theory goes very long back in the realm of science, with Newtons Laws of Motion, it was believed that every movement in the space and around is predictable. As the math was perfect, no one questioned it. There were a few scientists who asked what would happen if the movements were not precise but were rejected due to lack of proof.

In the 1800s there was the concept of “Laplace’s demon” which changed the course of the standard physics. “Laplace’s Demon” concerns the idea of determinism, particularly the belief that the past ultimately determines the future. It is proposed by “Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace”. This caught the eye many of the physicists and their many theories, but none could theoretically prove it. 

In the early 1900s, a French mathematician by the name “Henri Poincare” began studying orbits in the solar system. Initial work on the solar system, done by the physicists like Newton, had developed nice, finished equations that showed how orbits worked. Poincare decided to see what might happen if he added more elements into these equations.

When Poincare changed the initial starting point of some of the orbits in the solar system, he found very different results! Poincare found that even minimal changes to the initial equations made it almost impossible to predict how orbits might work. This discovery by Poincare led people to refer to him as the father of chaos.

In 1961 an MIT mathematician named “Edward Norton Lorenz” was running his weather calculations on a computer. He developed a computer program based on intricate mathematical formulas that generated weather patterns. After a few months, Lorenz decided he wanted to see the weather patterns again. So, he re-entered all of the data but got very different results! 

Lorenz was shocked to see this, and he checked the data very thoroughly. He found that he made a decimal error at a point, and the data was very different from which he got initially. By this, Lorenz developed “chaos theory.”

Chaos theory has a very widely used idea called “The Butterfly Effect.”

Butterfly Effect: It is a metaphor that is is meant to prove that small, unimportant events can lead to meaningful results over time. For example, if a butterfly flaps its wings in Tokyo, there might be a tornado in Texas. 

Now let us understand the applications of Chaos Theory.

Applications Of Chaos Theory:

  • Turbulence: With the mathematical approach of chaos theory, we can understand and predict turbulence. 
  • Weather: Using the math of chaos theory, we can predict the weather, as weather is non linear. 
  • Stock Market: Using the equations of chaos theory, and by adjusting its values, we can predict the stock market results.

We can say that chaos theory can be used when the data is not linear, and we need accurate results using the same non-linear data.

On a Thursday morning, I woke up to the sound of my alarm. Then I picked up the most loyal partner I ever had for two years, my phone and checked for notifications. I made my bed and went to the hall. I saw my mother doing her chores. As soon as she saw me, she raised eyes as she saw one of the most disgusting guys on the planet. I don’t think they have any exceptions on me.

It is the normal thing to me, as I told I’m getting too tired of the job I had and want to follow my passion. We had fought for almost every day for the past six months. Even my dad is on mom’s side, they always cuss me and force me to find another and higher corporate life. I get ready for my work and leave for the office.

Ahh, office, the birthplace of my slavery and fake respect. I go in, and all of my colleagues greet me, throw a fake smile at me and show some phony respect and I reflect the same and go to my cabin. I open my laptop and start working. Few hours pass by, and I take a break thinking about aspects of my life. One of my colleague and friend Teja walks in. 

Teja: What’s up, man! Why so gloomy? What’s wrong? 

Me: Nothing man, just thinking about life; it is becoming tough and challenging every day. I don’t think I will be able to take this anymore.  

Teja: Chill, bro! You got 52 clients in the past three months that is like a world record! You are the best performer consistently. I sometimes feel jealous and want to live your life. 

Me: Life is not about only professional life, my man! It is just a part of it. I hate this life. I want to perceive my passion. But I cannot, and it hurts a lot. You know how my parents treat me; it is not good. Sometimes I feel I should be the “man”. You know the macho types, the “alpha male.” Like fuck everything who cares and don’t feel anything. 

But I’m not that either I’m the opposite of alpha, what is the last letter in Greek letters? Ah, fuck I don’t even know that. Sometimes I feel I should believe in a supernatural deity. So that I can find someone to blame all this shit and ask for answers. Fuck it! I don’t even believe in spirituality to find so-called “peace.” I’m concerned my man. I don’t know even know what the fuck is going on. 

Teja: Calm down, bro! Do you trust and respect me?

Me: Of course I do! Why do you even ask that?

Teja: Nothing I know this person who claims to cure life problems, I will make an appointment this Saturday. Meet him, and he will surely help you.

Me: Those are conmen you stupid bitch! They just take the money and do nothing. You moppet headed fuck! Please don’t believe them and I hate them.

Teja: Calm down! He claims to use Science, you said you respect me, you should go there. Now shut the fuck up! It is getting late, let’s go to lunch.

Teja and I leave for lunch, and I keep thinking about this conment Teja told me. I went to many doctors; there is nothing wrong with me. They said not to take everything upon me, give things time and everything will be fine. But what will this guy tell me? Will he just loot me? The only way to find that is wait till Saturday and meet him directly. 

Finally, the day had arrived to see what the guy tells me. And I wake up and get ready to meet him. Teja texts me the appointment details and his location. I take my car and drove toward him; the site is 12 kilometres away. I reach there, and the name of the place intrigued me. It said “Science Helping Center.” I thought this conman is using Science in the wrong name. 

I went in and showed my message of appointment. They have asked me to wait in the waiting area till my name comes up. I went into a room that said “waiting room” and was awestruck! It had the best books and science journals possible. I was, is, and will always be a science nerd and I started reading a few and travelled through the cosmos. I felt so relieved after many days. 

Few hours pass by, and I’m having the best time ever! My name comes up and its time to meet him. I go in, and I see a man wearing torn jeans and has a dark style look sitting on a chair with a huge table. He sees me, smiles and sighs me to sit. I sat there in silence, waiting for the conman to arrive. The man in front of me is reading something, and his eyes are rolling very seriously.

After a few minutes, he put the thing he is reading down, looks at me and starts speaking.

Him: Hey! My name is Munna, and I’m the one who cures people here, this is your file I have been reading. So you got house issues and issues with people and stuff. I get that, no problem, I will help you.

I was in shock, how can a conman dress like this and speak like this? After a few seconds, I gathered myself and started talking. 

Me: Never thought a conman would dress like this to get more people in. You are using science name to lure people in and gain money. Now, what are you going to do? Indulge me into spirituality and say giggle? I know you all, you are the biggest liars on this planet.

Munna smiled and continued. 

Munna: I don’t give a shit on your spirituality, neither I won’t give a rats ass on your beliefs. I’m doing the thing I know to help you. If you want to get help, do as I say, or else you can fuck off. It is as simple as that.

I startled for a moment and agreed to do whatever he is giving me.

Munna: Okay, here is a drink. Once you drink it, you will be knocked out for ten days. You won’t even know what is happening around you. You will wake up after ten days and then follow what I ask you to do.

I thought for a while and decided to drink it. It tasted peculiar; the worst thing I have ever tasted in my entire life. I drank it all in and within a few seconds, it felt drowsy, and I dozed off. Days passed by and finally I woke up and was feeling very hungry and weak. I searched for my phone and couldn’t find it around my bed. After a few minutes, a lady came to me and asked to freshen up and meet Munna. 

I freshened up and went to meet Munna. He signalled me to sit and was a reading a paper again. After a few minutes, he looked at me and said.

Munna:  So, you are done with stage one of the procedure. Now I want you to go back to your everyday life and observe how people are with you. Don’t call people till you meet them. I want you to note these things you find in them and meet me after two days. Don’t forget to collect your stuff while leaving.

It felt strange, but I accepted, I took my things and headed home. After precisely two days, I came back with my observations. This time I can directly meet Munna without any waiting because he wanted to see me as I came in. I walked straight to him. He signalled me to sit and talked to me. 

Munna: So, what are your observations? How did people behave with you? What did you observe? Tell me everything you did and make sure not to miss minute essential details. 

Me: Okay, as soon as I left this place, I reached home. My family was like we thought you ran away for your passion and tried to search you, later we thought you would be back eventually as you feel will hungry. Next day I went to the office, but the faces that usually greet me were laughing at me. They didn’t have a greeting or a fake smile.  

After some time, my boss walked into my cabin and asked what do I think of this company? He doesn’t give a fuck if I’m a top performer or anything. I should answer the phone at least. He asked me to quit and gave a termination notice. My friends were like, where were you, man? We missed you a bit and asked not to live without saying. You made my life messier now you dick face! 

Munna had a chuckle, and he noted down everything I said. After writing, he saw me in the eye and started speaking. 

Munna: “Now, rewind your life a bit. The past ten days, even you didn’t live your life. They went into the oblivion, and you cannot get them back. Your parents thought you just ran away and didn’t even bother to inquire. They thought you would just feel hungry and come back. Your office where you were working for four years, who hails you as the best guy, hard worker etc., removed you like you were nothing.

All the emotions you felt came from other people reactions to you. The most important thing here is “expectation.” You expect your parents to be understanding, your boss to give you less work, people to stop hating you and be a friend so and so forth there are many.

I’m not saying don’t expect or expect, and I’m not the one to say it. You expected and that is fine. But when the people didn’t reflect your expectation, why are you feeling sad? Why don’t you respect your expectation on yourself? Why don’t you like yourself? 

It is effortless to kick a person when he is low, and this so-called “society” tend to do it. In your case, your parents tend to do it because they know you cannot say anything back or stand up for yourself. And in the case of your office the same people who greeted you smiled at you didn’t give a rats ass when the boss is yelling at you. 

If we go back a bit, before that ten days you missed. You never liked yourself. You always blamed yourself for all the abuses and cusses you got. Slowly that self-blame turned into self-hate. Now you think everyone around you hates you. Let me tell you a small thing, people are very busy in their life and can feel the emotions.

You might have small fights, misunderstandings, ignorance, etc., but eventually, they will realise the good you did to them and will be with you and stand for you. Unless and until you murdered their family or did some hideous crime, no one will really hate you. It is you who hates you and think that everyone does too.

If you start standing up for yourself and start liking yourself for the way you are, these things don’t bother you much. If you are depressed, wants to be alone and not share anything with anyone, how will anyone know you are suffering from issues. Remember, there will be rough days and sadness, but when you are having a good day, you need to smile and share the happiness the same way you are sharing sorrow. 

If you stand up for yourself and be expressive with the people whom you like and share things, you will have much better days coming forward.”

After listening to this, tears just came rolling out of my eyes. This time these were happy tears. I hugged Munna and headed back home for a better version of myself. 

I can feel the smell, the smell of freshly baked dough. The sweet smell of dough is throughout the street; it makes my mouth water. I looked at the bakery, and the bakers are not open yet. Maybe they are preparing for today. I look up at the sky, and the sun has not risen. But a few rays of him escaped and made the sky brighter than it was an hour ago. I wonder why I woke up this early; I can’t even eat anything till 2-3 hours pass. Wait, I know where I am, but When Am I? Are these feelings just memories?


I realised that I was drifting in a childhood memory. I am now 20 years older than that memory. It was the smell of dough that made me lose myself—the scent from the same bakery at the same time. The sun has not risen yet. And I wonder the same thing, why am I even awake? I am standing in between a road like an idiot while all the people are walking past me. They look shadowy and too dark to have any visible features. I don’t understand where there is such low detail.

I realised again; it is merely a memory. I am 23 years older than the memory of drifting away in my childhood memory because I’m standing in the same place that I stood and lost into memories 23 years ago. It is like the movie, Inception, except I’m awake. I’m drifting in memories while I’m awake. I always have this habit of losing myself into my memories.


It is not that I have only beautiful memories, but don’t know why I tend to travel a lot in my mind; revisit the memories. And this revisiting does not happen voluntarily. Something triggers these memories, and I find myself replaying all the memories that thave something similar to the present moment. But to be honest, other than the location, smell of the dough and my position, everything is different.


The main thing that is different from all the three scenarios, 43 years younger me feeling the smell of dough, 23 years younger me and the 50-year-old me, is the motive. We three were awake at the same time and happened to be at this place, but the reason behind waking up is different. Yet somehow, I travelled back in time because of the smell of dough. I heard a sharp bike horn that pierced my eardrums and made me come back to my senses.


I was in the middle of the street, trying to cross the road and the biker felt anxious, maybe he realised that my body is on auto-pilot mode. But the horn was unnecessary; I had managed ages by activating auto-pilot mode. I just leave my body to my instincts while I drift away into someplace. The screen that is present in my mind keeps playing different movies. Even when I’m riding my bike or driving my car, I drift away. It is my instincts that control the vehicle.


I have lived long enough than an average human. My hygiene is so bad that I never thought I would live past 45. I don’t sleep enough; I don’t eat enough. But I still have a potbelly, because I don’t walk sufficient either. I don’t do anything in the quantities suggested by people to live healthily because I feel everything is just a burden. I like drifting away into my memories. That is the only thing that I perform in quantities more than suggested. And then again something dragged me back to this world, and it kept my attention more than the biker. It is the nose of my building’s watchman.


Is he Pinocchio? Why is his nose growing day by day? Or is it that I never observed his nose? I guess it has something to do with his cap. He wore a monkey cap that covered all his face, and his nose was peaking out of it. He was a bit cute; I never thought of him this way. He suddenly looks adorable. After some time, I realised that I’m staring right into his face and it grew quite awkward. But I guess he didn’t notice; he was in his world of thoughts. Are all humans like this?

Maybe everyone is always lost in their own memories. It is weird how we can just switch to auto-pilot mode whenever we want. And it is a wonder how it is not a choice but an involuntary action. It is like a monitor turning into screensaver mode after a lot of idleness. The screensavers are memories which have something similar to the senses.

Like the smell of dough, somehow my brain hooked the two memories, the one first experienced and the next one when I drifted and the third time a few moments ago when I drifted away in memory of drifting away. I guess our brain links memories with our sense. The strongest of the senses that is active at that moment is embedded with the memory. The smell of dough that pierced into my nose and manipulated my thoughts. Now those three instances of memories are categorised under ‘Smell of dough’. I reached my apartment, but I didn’t want to go in.


If I chose to open the door my apartment, my mind would flood me with thousands of memories that are linked with the apartment. And nothing has changed in my apartment, the smell of older people and the smell of adult diapers. Nothing has ever changed in these 43 years, and I don’t expect it to change. When I was running in those streets sniffing the baking smells, I ran to buy medicines, for my great grandmother. I saw my grandmother and mother take care of her from she got diseased and soon became deceased.


There was a silence for a few months, and then my grandfather took the turn of falling on the bed. I guess someone should always be on the bed in this house. The smells of adult diapers, it surrounds me all my life. When I enter the house, that is the strongest of the senses that reaches my brain. The memories that flood into the mind and the movies that play in my brain’s screen are the ones that I don’t want to see. Enough of diapers! I thought a lot of times. But I’m happy that I don’t continue the trend of my family.


I don’t push the burden of cleaning my elderly butt to my child, because I have none. Unlike my family that took turns and shifted places with the next one, I’m afraid I will fall sick too. After my grandfather, it was my grandmother then my father and now my mother. They fell ill, they lived, for ages sucking the life out of the one serving them. It is a cycle what happened in our family. Our lives went on serving the elders, and there comes a time when we get the services in return. This cycle is what I want to break. I will never have children.


These thoughts rushed me as soon as I opened my door, and this is why I always pause before opening the door and making myself enter the diaper paradise. My sick mother turned her shaky head towards me from a distance. The ancestral bed she was lying on is as old as a fully grown pine tree. This movement of her head, it, in turn, triggers a lot of memories. It reminds me of all the others that turned their head to look at me every time when I enter. I love my mother! And that’s the chain that ties me to her. The bond that I can never severe. I chose to serve her rather than enjoying the life of my own; this is the bond of us.

I wish my mother were not sick. If not for that, deep down, I wanted her to die. Not because I hate her. I can never imagine my life without my mother. But what happiness does any of us have? What life have we seen other than elderly buttocks? I don’t compare myself with the life of others. The others have even sick lives. I see people thinking themselves to be independent yet somehow fall in the trap of love and have kids and grandkids. At my age, even they wipe poopy buttocks, except that it is of children’s. With the system that makes us spend our lives entirely in diversions, it is only ordinary to get lost in memories.


I sat beside my mother, and she holds my hand with a lot of difficulties. Her grip had begun to loosen for a couple of months. She smiled with her toothless mouth, and while her lips widen to her cheeks, her eyes puked out a drop of tear. “I’m sorry” she whispers, and this triggers the deepest of my fears. I couldn’t control the event; I don’t know why, but my eyes produced a lot of water. My vision became blurry, and the tears rolled down my cheeks. “You don’t need to be, Ma,” I said, kissing her forehead. I wiped my tears because I don’t want her to know that I hate my life. I do understand that this sickness only takes off her dignity.


But why did she say sorry? Did she feel guilty for making me serve her? Does she think that I didn’t marry because of her? I can never ask her these questions, and I don’t even want her to think about these things. I just want her to die peacefully. Only in death does this drifting away stops. She doesn’t have to be guilty of making me serve her. She doesn’t need to be a burden to anyone. But again, if she is dead? What am I going to do with my life? This thought struck me like a lightning bolt, and I had no answers. It is beyond me to imagine a life without the smell of adult diapers. It changes everything.


Maybe somewhere I don’t want her to die either. Perhaps that is the reason why I tender her ailments and keep her alive. I don’t want to live a life without her. I’m submitted to serve her; I need her to be there and keep me diverted from the nothingness of life. I need her alive. Or is this my irrational and moral mind speaking to me to kill my feelings of burden? Guh! I don’t know anymore. I don’t know if I wanter her alive or if I want her to die peacefully. But I think I am fine. With the earning, that is more than enough for this rag house; I can afford to serve my mother. So, I think it is okay, her being alive.


I shut the alarm that reminds of the medicine time, and I popped all the pills out of 9 different boxes. It takes 18 capsules per day for this elderly creature to be alive. I brought some water and called her name. She didn’t move; she does this. And she makes a fool out of me by playing dead. I get the doctors, and then she wakes up. Today I am not in the mood to play the fool. I shook her to wake her up. But she didn’t, and my heart started pounding. This sight of my motionless mother triggers specific memories of my father and grandparents. I stopped shaking her, and I guess I know what happened. I just stood beside her as motionless as she is.


It feels tight inside me. I am not emoting, and I am not thinking of anything else. It is just blank everywhere. I don’t want my mind to work now; don’t want it screen the memories of my mother, like some backstory. I don’t want to drift away now, and I want to be present at the moment. I want to look at this sight of the soul passing out from her body, and I want her to see the soul liberate both of us. The bond that made me stay in this world, it is severed now. Now there is nothing that ties me to this world. And no matter how much I hate to think of it, it gave me a sigh of relief. And this relief, It is a relief that made me think of all this.


I realised that it happened 21 years ago and now I’m sleeping in a cabin. The blizzard is so intense that cold breeze hacked into the gaps of this wooden cabin and entered into my room, and I can feel a sigh of relief. My 71-year-old body feels light and relieved. I understand that I cannot live any longer in this cold. My body has lost the capabilities to make me stand the cold anymore. I didn’t feel sick like my elders. That allowed me to travel thousands of miles by selling everything I had. I made sure that I keep travelling and have no redundancy in my life because I don’t want any repetitions that trigger my memories. I need new smells, new visuals, new sounds, new touches and new tastes.


But after 21 years, since my mother passed away, something took me back to all the memories that I evaded from all the time. And that is this relief that made me remember those things. There is something in my mind that feels happy and blissful. I craved to smell the dough one more time and I feel very lightweight; the cold breeze stopped bothering me. I can see something dark approaching me and erasing everything around me. And this darkness doesn’t have a taste, smell, visual, touch or sounds. It is the ultimate nothing that is filling me. And I felt happy for finally ending this loops of revisitation and go to a place where I get to have nothing. Soon it filled everything of me, and my eyelids felt heavy, I closed my eyes.

memories
Photo by Luca Chiandoni on Pexels.com

Fiction is one of the most prominent forms of story writings. It is also one of the predominant and one of the oldest forms of writing. In general, most of the movies and series are based on fiction. Fictional writing can be described as a story meant to entertain or carry an author’s point. In this article, let us try to understand the things which are very crucial to write a fiction using real incidents.

Before we proceed if you want to know on how to write an effective article? or want to know more on content writing, click on the highlighted words. 

The following are the crucial ingredients to write good fiction using real incidents.

1. Character: The character is one of the essential parts of fiction. As the story is fiction, you can have full freedom of the character. It is like holding one of the most powerful guns and shooting anyway you want. You can take a character, add your elements and escalate the hell out of it. 

Many of the experts suggest not to include yourself in the story. But if you can separate the experience as it is and imagine that you are sharing your experience with your rational part of the brain and stay truthful to it, you can write the best fiction. Remember, no one can narrate your story or intention better than you.

2. Theme:  As the character has a free flow in fiction, the authors tend to break the theme and go beyond it. The most important is that your character has freeflow in the story, but the theme of the story should be the same. You cannot break the walls of the theme and deviate the story from it. Stick to a theme and let the story flow.

3. Narration: This is my favourite part of fiction; you can use any narration to write fiction. You can write a poem, sonnet, first-party narration, third party narration so and so forth. Any narration can blend very well with fiction. You need to pick the one which you are good at and go with it. 

4. Relate The Story To The Reader:  It is good if we can relate the story of the character to the reader. By this, the reader gets curiosity to keep on reading and feels involved. You can relate by adding common elements in our day to day lives. Like you can create a situation when your character is driving, cooking etc., By doing this, the story feels natural and will have a good flow. 

5. Editing: This is one of the crucial parts of fiction writing. After you have finished writing and before you publish your story, take a small break. Move out of the room, relax for some time, come back and read it from a readers point of view. By doing this, you can remove or add elements to your story. This improves the quality of the story in all the ways possible. It also acts as a proof reading for yourself so that can make necessary changes for the story.

If you follow the above described elements correctly, you can write one of the best fictions possible. 

We can see that many bloggers, like us, of course, have started content writing in their blogs, or they write for contracts. But what is this content? Where does it come? Well, like any other forms of writing, it comes within the brain of a writer. Content writing, usually seen as a money-making idea for writers, is much more than just some contract. What content is but the voice of a person!

No matter how many articles content writers study to write an original article, the words that come out on the empty document have some originality. And that originality lies in the voice of the author. The author might not put a steady focus in the words that they are writing, but involuntarily the choice of words and framing of sentences shout their voices out. The essence of the writer takes these articles forward.

The essence of content writing

You, as a content writer, might be writing some piece of work that doesn’t fascinate you at all. Maybe you are writing about something you always love. Regardless of the topic, your opinion, negative or positive, gets embedded in the tone of your writings. One can tell if you wrote the article with your full interest or zero interest just by reading out the lines that you have written. This boring-writing happens when you write your un-favourite essay and are just writing something to fill the words.

Your tone, essence and opinions are what you need to be careful. You can not just write whatever you want because content writing might be a side-income for you, but for many who read the blogs to find answers, it is a piece of information. You can solve this issue of disinterest by treating the article as a piece of information. If you are writing about paint boxes, make sure that you are not giving out false information because some reader thinks it to be true. You need to verify the information you are reading out in different articles. That is why people say to read more to write more.

The back-end of content writing

On the front-end, content writing is all about form. The format that you are writing is crucial if you are writing for websites. There is a particular pattern so that your blog pops out when someone searches for a relevant topic. The form exists, and it becomes your duty to edit the article in a way that it respects the norms of content writing. But what is the back-end of this process? There are few things, generalised, that usually fit for the back-end process. It might vary with writers, but it is broad enough to include most of them.

1) Research

Research plays a significant role in content writing. As a content writer, you need not be aware of a lot of things, but you need to be mindful of the things that make you knowledgeable quickly, like Google! All you need to do is google the topic, read pre-existing articles on the topic to get a perspective. Now, you can choose to paraphrase the subject, but what’s the fun? Never decide to paraphrase until you have a time limit and you don’t have an option. If you do have a lot of time and options, choose to research the topics and form an understanding and perspective on the issue.

2) Deciding a narrative

Every content has a story behind it. It is the job of a content writer to write in a way that the information is conveyed. There are different ways to write an article to share a piece of information. You can choose to write directly as what it is, or you can choose to break down the data into several little bits and put it out as ‘Several things of something’. If you decide to write directly, you need to make sure that it fits the form. Form of writing according to SEO (search engine optimisation) is a topic of another article. You can read it here if you are interested in the form.

3) Choice of words

As we have discussed earlier, it is the choice of words and framing that decide your essence. You need to choose the words wisely in a way that the article is not dull and at the same time conveying more information. The most effective way of writing is by choosing fewer words to tell more. Your contracts indeed demand a certain number of words for each article. But do not just write anything randomly to extend the article. I could have written, “do not just write anything randomly just for the purpose of extending an article”. But instead of that, I used “to extend” which saved three unnecessary words that extend the work.

Write for yourself

This sentence is something that might appear as a cliche, but yet real. You need to remember that content writing is not another option to earn more bucks. You write for yourself, and you write to express. Without the expression, thousands of words you write become cannon fodder. Even if you paraphrase other articles, lift their context and paste them in your words, make sure that there is an expression of your own. Because again, content writing, like any writing is for yourself! No matter what you are writing, it becomes a product that you have produced. What great is a product that doesn’t have an expression of its maker! Embrace yourself as a content writer, because it is not inferior to any other forms of writing!

It is past 3:00 AM, and John is sitting on his chair and is thinking something very deeply. He takes the last sip of the energy drink and throws the can away. That is the day John decided to end things for him; he planned his suicide. As his family has different health issues, there were all kinds of drugs in his house. He picks a bunch of them puts in front of him and decides to end it.

Before that, he decides to write a suicide note explaining why he is ending it. He searches for a pen and paper and gets them. He thinks on what to write, and many thoughts are bouncing over his head. He gets confused and gets emotional. After some time, he gathers himself and decides to write. As it has been days since John wrote something using a pen, he fumbled a bit at the beginning and continues.

“Hey, so I decided to end things,
Day by day, life made no sense.
It has been a journey of 23 years,
I have nothing left but tears.”

There is a chill down his spine, and he falls back on the chair and wipes the tears. He sits there, holding his head for some time. He then gathers himself together, holds the pen again and continues.

“The past few days were like living in a pressure cooker,
Each and every moment of it made me sicker.
Every single day felt like a dog chewed bone,
By thinking it, I had my brain blown.”

A tear rolls down the cheek of John; he wipes it and pauses for a moment. He then gains a bit of confidence and continues.

“I know life is not a bed of roses,
There will be happiness and sadness.
My life has nothing but a colossal sorrow,
By thinking of it every moment I felt hollow.”

John couldn’t hold his emotion now; he stops for a moment and starts weeping. After some time, he holds the pen and continues.

“There were people who would listen to my sadness,
But I don’t want to tell them and disturb their peace.
Any sane mind will lose it if this is heard,
They would feel terrible, and tears would shred.”

John holds for a bit and thinks of his friends and the moments he shared with them when he was feeling low. After a long pause, he continues.

” I got many suggestions when I shared a few, yep,
But did I follow them and try making my situation better? Nope.
I always thought they want to stay and or go away from me,
But I never shared a few laughs or happiness and invited them to thee.”

By this, John gets a ray of hope. He takes the note and keeps it safely in his closet. He Puts the medicines back and goes back to bed, hoping it would be different and goes to sleep. Let’s hope the same for John.

Writing an effective article is every blogger’s dream. Though many people want to write, only a few can ace the skill. And there’s a reason for it. You might have been writing for many weeks now, but still, you don’t think your article is an amazing piece to read. Believe me; every writer will feel the same, unless and until he finds out the tips on how to write an effective article.

Let me keep this simple for you. There is a simple framework to write an effective article. In this article, I will explain to you what is that framework and how you can use it in your write-ups to make an SEO-friendly article.

THE FRAMEWORK TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE ARTICLE-

How to write an effective article- framewrok

Now that you see the framework in the image, you must be able to understand that it takes a certain amount of effort to frame your article. But when you follow this framework, you will surely be able to see the difference the framework makes on your article.

Why should one follow the framework?

Everyone wants things sorted. No one likes to spend a lot of time understanding what we wrote. When we follow the framework, it becomes easy for the reader to understand the context of the article, and it might drive his interest to read the article until the end.

Will this make my article SEO-friendly?

No, there are a lot of SEO rules that we need to understand to make our content SEO-friendly. But, I will explain to you in-brief what can be done. Follow these tips to make your article SEO-friendly.

  1. Chose a focus keyphrase. It would be best if you chose a word or a fragment which you would want the reader to focus on. Make sure you use the key phrase at least 2-5% of your content. Make sure you include it in your title, sub-headings, introduction and meta-description.
  2. Length of the article. Too short or too long can make your article boring. So make sure your content stays between 300-1500 words. If you think, the content is big; you can write the topic in two parts by linking them to each other.
  3. Linking of the other content. Use links related to other articles to grab viewer’s attention. You can use the links of other websites too!
  4. Make sure your article is friendly and easy to read. Good vocabulary that is easy to understand won’t hurt! Make sure your grammar and spellings are on point.
  5. Use images that are relevant to your content and see if you can use alternative text for the same (alt-text).

Keep in mind that whatever topic you chose to write, you should have a clear opinion about that. Though our opinions change with time, the change should occur under a certain logic. Another persons’ opinion should never influence yours just because that person is well-spoken. When you try to project someone else’s opinions in your articles just because it is getting eyeballs, you lost yourself already! A writer should always have a clear mind while writing things and that’s what makes the best writer.

Though it is pretty much clear for you now on how to write an effective article, you might still face problems while writing. It is okay! You remember that quote, “Rome wasn’t built in a day” right?

You can also read, how to grow the SEO of your website with latest trends in 2020!

I was walking along the road with two friends. The sun was setting – suddenly the sky turned blood red. I paused, feeling exhausted, and leaned on the fence, there were blood and tongues of fire above the blue-black fjord and the city. And my friends walked on, and I stood there trembling with anxiety, and I sensed an infinite scream passing through nature.

And that is how Edvard Munch describes what he felt while drawing the infamous painting, The Scream (1893). He saw the sky turn blood red, and he felt anxious. If you can see the artwork, the first thing that comes to your mind is ‘anxious’. The art flaunts out, speaks out anxiety; everything about that piece of art communicates some fear.

Edvard Munch describes this about Oslo, in Norway. There was a lunatic asylum near that location which admitted his sister for her disorder. Many interpretations tell that it was this asylum that he referred when he said: “scream passing through nature”. He describes how he felt anxious when he was looking at the blood-red sky. Many thought the blood-red sky was just a metaphor.

Historians explain that a nearby volcanic eruption causes a dramatic red sky in Oslo for a few days. The red sky he saw might be in one of those days. And it is only natural to feel anxious after looking at something unnatural. But if you look closely at the figure that is in the painting. It is screaming, now that figure is metaphorical. It is in-human and looks something close to what we call a ghost.

This figure might represent nature in a personal form. The personification of his feelings when he passed that area made this painting necessary. It is a crucial artwork in history because it is prominent for the movement: ‘impressionism’. People consider Edvard Munch as an expressionist artist, but this specific work is impressionistic. 

Impressionism was an art movement in the 19th century. The impressionist artists chose to draw or make a piece of art not by merely depicting something as it is. They would instead create an impression that had been in their minds while looking at the specific inspiration. You can see how it fits the profile of The Scream!

Many historians also claim that it was not just a lunatic asylum that felt like a scream of nature, but there was also a slaughterhouse nearby.

Later in life, Edvard Munch stopped consuming meat and felt it was cannibalism. He, however, continued to eat fish, but he was outspoken about turning vegetarian. ‘Vegetarian cult’ he called it. Historians related his thoughts on vegetarianism from his early ‘Scream’ days and said the ‘scream of nature’ might also refer to the screams of animals from the slaughterhouse. 

It does make sense to think of it as the screams of animals because, in his later life, Munch describes eating animals is cannibalism and they are our cousins, brothers, sisters and aunts. He is against the idea of eating closer relatives such as animals, and he supports eating our distant relatives who share different anatomy to us, the plants!

Both interpretations have something in common, the scream—screams of lunatic patients and animals from butchery. Both are innocent; they have committed no crime to suffer such punishment. It is humans that mistreat people with disorders and animals for food. The setting seemed odd, slaughterhouse one side and the lunatic asylum on the other, and the blood-red sky. It was a scream of nature; man, animal, sky, plant and everything around screamed at that moment in his mind.

If he drew this as ordinary landscape painting depicting it as it is with regular people on the bridge, asylum and slaughterhouse on either side, would it have created such an impact? Would you feel anxious when you look at it? Would you understand the scream of nature? You would need some description to figure out the motive behind the painting if it was an ordinary landscape.

It is because of the impressionistic choice he made to personify the scream, to draw the sky wavy in a surreal way, and that makes us feel anxious to look at it. It is as if it was his anxiety that he put into the work, and it transmits to everyone who looks at it. Such is the beauty of Impressionist and Expressionist arts. It is not merely capturing the movement as it is, but it is capturing the feelings that come with the moment and scenery that makes a painting and artistic painting!

Kanyadaan, meaning giving away a daughter. For most of you who don’t know what Kanyadaan is, here it is, in simple words. Kanya means Woman and Daan means Donation.

A ritual of stupidity!?

Kanyadaan is a ritual, a tradition that is being followed since ages. I ask why does this ritual even exist?
Sometimes, I feel like, in the name of marriage, a daughter is sold forever. But a father doesn’t want to donate his daughter. He ties her into the relationship of love & respect with her better half. It shouldn’t be about bidding goodbye to the daughters, instead, it should be a happy moment, as it is said: “shaadi do logo ki nahi, do parivaar ko hoti hai.”

That means everything gets double now, it’s a double offer – two families, two addresses and lots of happiness. Then why the ritual of “Kanyadaan”? I don’t believe in such ritual because women are not objects & marriage is not a charity. Objectifying women has not been rare, and making her a gift is nothing to be surprised of as well. But what surprises me is the fact that this ritual is still in practice, unquestioned.

The world has evolved!

Times have changed, women are getting educated, achieving their dreams, contributing to family finances, taking care of their parents and fulfilling many other responsibilities. Then what is the logic behind still continuing with the rituals like Kanyadaan? I believe, a ritual is just a matter of time and with time rituals should change as well. The ideology of carrying them through generations makes no sense because when we evolve through generations, it means our ideologies should evolve too.

I understand that there is respect towards traditions, no matter how much we grow in life. But if the tradition lacks the logic then why should we follow it. There were also rituals like Sati Sahagamanam which asked women to burn in the fire of her man’s pyre in the death funeral. Out of people’s stupidity, for many eras, it was considered a tradition. But with time, people like Raja Ram Mohan Roy fought against such foolish rituals. I guess, he was that age’s feminist! And eventually, in British rule, they banned this ritual. In the same way, we should be able to understand the traditions that involve stupidity and fight against them.

Fight for yourselves!

Questioning and shunning these rituals will serve a very strong purpose of taking away the religious and moral sanctions that come in the way of providing ourselves with the social settings that we know are logical and justified.

I strongly believe, and urge every girl who finds herself out of her traditional roles, who sees herself at par with males, that she must question these kinds of rituals, “Kanyadaan” in particular. Because no one will come and fight for such things, you should do it for yourself. There are more pressing matters to address and fight for one. With evolving generations, we should understand that it is high time to stand up for ourselves rather than expecting someone else to do so.

In the last article, we have understood the concept of a black hole, and it’s applications. In this article, let us know the idea of wormholes.

Wormhole: In simple terms, a wormhole is like a tube connecting two places in space. By travelling through the wormhole, you could travel large distances across space exceptionally faster.

As of now, wormholes are a theoretical concept. If a wormhole is created, you can theoretically travel faster than the speed of light from one point to another in the universe. According to the math, wormholes are very unstable and collapse immediately once they are formed. 

Let us try to understand the history of the wormholes.

Pictorial representation of wormhole.

History of wormholes: 

Wormholes were first theorized in 1916, While reviewing another physicist’s solution to the equations in Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, Austrian physicist “Ludwig Flamm” realized another solution was possible. He described a “white hole,” a theoretical time reversal of a black hole. A space-time conduit could connect entrances to both black and white holes.

In 1935, “Einstein” and physicist “Nathan Rosen” used the theory of general relativity to develop on the idea, proposing the existence of “bridges” through space-time. These bridges connect two different points in space-time, theoretically creating a shortcut that could reduce travel time and distance. The shortcuts came to be called “Einstein-Rosen bridges”, or wormholes.

Theoretically, a wormhole can be created by creating two black holes opposite to each other. The black holes suck in all the horizons of each other and leave a tunnel to pass through. If a wormhole is ever to be formed, it must have a matter called “exotic matter.”

Exotic matter: These are hypothetical particles and states of matter that have “exotic” physical properties that would violate laws of physics, such as a particle having a negative mass.

Imagine a particle having a negative mass; it will move away from the direction where a force is applied. That is the reason even if a wormhole is created, it collapses as the force acts inwards very fast due to the negative mass effect. 

Applications of a wormhole:

  • Time travel is possible if we can create a wormhole. According to special relativity, time slows down when we approach the speed of light. But in a wormhole, we can travel faster than the speed of life. By this, the time stops, and we can travel through it. 
  • If we can create a wormhole, we can make the fastest mode of transport. As wormholes act like a tube of travel between two points, you can travel between them faster than the speed of light.
  • By reversing the properties of the wormhole, we can create a controlled black hole and study the properties of the same and uncover the secrets of the universe. 

Let us hope that the scientists can create a wormhole and can be used for the betterment of human life. 

Doctor Steve: “This is the best prototype result we have ever got John! Once we implant this fully AI-enhanced chip in your head, you will have more handle of everything and behave just like humans used to do in 21st century.”

John: “That is an excellent thing to hear doctor! What is the success rate you got when you tested on the animal test subjects? And what did you name this?

Doctor Steve: “We have an 87% success rate on test subjects, and this is the fastest AI chip ever made, so we named it ‘light.’ “

John: That is nice to hear, I’m ready for the implant, let us do it!

Doctor Steve: Awesome! Here we go, aaand it’s done! Here is a device to check the results. If you have any concerns, you can come to visit us anytime or call us.

I feel delighted after I got the chip installed; it must enhance my thinking in various aspects. I was going home thinking the same. Boy, I was wrong. I left the building, got into my car and starting driving. As the year is 2346, that was the last year we have traffic lights and vehicle stops.

I was waiting at the light to turn green, then a middle-aged man with his 58th edition car which is pretty old. He is listening to music on his 720-degree audio and enjoying it. He looked at me and gave a smile and drove off. What a douche! 

Why is he smiling? I have not seen a smile since the last time my parents left me for some couple of hundred bucks. I mean they got money and smiled, I get that. What did this douche bag smile? That too in an old car and outdated audio?

I drive to a grocery store to take a few things and go to the billing counter. The billing counter employee did a good job. He just took things charged me. After everything is done, he had a look at me to go away. That is the thing that should go on, but that dick face back in car smiled at me. 

I go home, and the watchman asks for ID, as usual, no smile or nothing. Why did he smile? Anyways let me cook and eat. I cook my meal and start eating it. I share memes with my gang and get all the reacts, now that is what I’m talking about! Virtual reacts, who smiles to me on the face.

After an hour, my roommate came and thrashed me with a belt and was laughing. That is my daily routine. He has a weird habit of beating the pulp out of me and laughing. I get that too he is having fun, and I’m used to abuse as well. That person laughed at me without any reason.

The night passed, I woke up next day naked as my roommate likes to do a few things with my naked body. It will be painful, but he enjoys it a lot. The only reason I’m living with him is, he threatened me if I leave, he would kill me. He always carried a gun with him. 

I woke up and looked at the mirror and smiled at myself! Now that is strange! Why did I do this? The next moment the device doctor Steve gave me beeps for a moment. It says device activated an hour ago and the data will be shown after 24 hours. I was excited about this and started my day. 

I went out for a walk, and I see people laughing and smiling at each other, wishing good morning, have a good day etc., This happens daily, but why does it seem strange today. Do the person who says good morning, have a good day mean it? Why I’m I thinking this now? I was confused and started walking further.

I reach home and lie down, having nothing to do, I take a nap. After a few hours, the device beeps, it is 24 hours after I got the chip. It has the results. I woke up, washed my face and opened the device to see the results. The results had new words that I didn’t hear anytime in my life. It has words like “emotional score”, “empathy” “peace of mind” etc., 

I never heard of these terms. I started googling and taking understanding these terms. My emotional score is going towards sadness and depression. Depression? I satisfy all the people around me, why I’m I depressed? Isn’t that the process? I was so confused and couldn’t figure out. It had the option of a detailed report. 

I clicked on it and going through results. To my surprise, it shows I may be unhappy and maybe facing abuse. What is abuse? Is the system broken? I googled abuse, and to my surprise, I was being abused! I went in through all the details and got to know the same. It also has steps on how to face depression. 

It said if a person is abusing you, retaliate against them and stand for yourself. I took this to mind and waited for my roommate to come. When my roommate came to beat me, I stood against him and said no. He got so mad that he punished me till I got blood and called his friends and raped me. 

The app didn’t say what to do; it is fucking broken! Next day I went to the doctor Steve and explained the same. The doctor almost cried, and said he is going to install another chip to cope with it. That day Steve didn’t say that he is giving a killer chip to murder abusers! It has been six years I got the chip. I killed almost 273 abusers and 258 paedophiles.

I’m writing this from my jail, and I’m going to get executed tomorrow. I have a secret to share with you all. I didn’t kill them because I felt terrible for abuse, I killed them because the chip told me to! I still don’t know how emotions work yet!

The world goes on, the world moves as it is. If there is a change that happens that destroys the order in the world, the world destroys it. If it survives, adapts and changes, the world changes, and the order changes. It recurs and some activists fight for the unfair things in the world and the world again fights the activist to remain as it is.

It is the activist that is bothered with the unfair things in the world. And this unfair thing begins personally, it is unfair to the activist first and then they begin to realise there are other people like them who find these things unfair too. It is only then it becomes an activity. The activist carries the guilt of the world, but the world doesn’t carry their guilt. For the world they are just another speck of dust making unnecessary sounds and destroying the order for some logic that has never occurred to anybody.

The origin

Veeru, like all these activists, decided to fight for something he found unfair. It all started with a glass of milk. He was 17 then and he woke up to the cold chills of winter. Hyderabad is funny, the temperature during nights and early mornings are single digits but the afternoons burn your skin. 

He woke up feeling a chill in his bones, he wanted to drink something warm. He checked his fridge and found a packet of milk. And he poured it into a vessel and started heating it. As he poured the hot milk into his cup, a thought occurred to his brain. “What is this liquid?” he thought. This liquid which I drink, which I crave to make some chai tea. Without it the tea tastes bad.

He instantly remembers a chapter in his school. “Cow gives us milk” and he told himself that milk is necessary. An essential need of humans. But again “What does this milk give me?”, “Oh! It gives me calcium. So, humans need milk for a lifetime” he sat on his couch sipped some hot milk. He recalled his brother drinking milk from his mother. “Kids need milk” he thought. “Kids need mother’s milk” he corrected himself. He switched his TV on and put National geographic.

There is some documentary about cubs of different cats. “Cats need milk, beings need milk” eh thought as he saw kittens sucking milk from their mother. He clicked next and there’s some another channel of leopards mating. “I have never seen an adult cat drinking milk” he thought. This thought remained and disturbed him for some time. All this time of thinking, he never sipped the milk. “It is a cow tit enzyme” he though. And he couldn’t sip the milk another time. In fact, he felt nauseous and almost puked the milk he drank. “It is weird” he stood up poured the milk back into the vessel.

The Problem

He went out for a walk to divert himself from this disturbing thought of himself sucking milk from a cow. “The grass the cow eats that allows the cow to produce the milk that it produces for its calf. Why am I even drinking it?” he thought. He turned around as a bus honked and his eyes went upon a big billboard. That board has a big poster of a cow smiling while holding a packet milk. “My fresh milk, just for you” the board read. It made him nauseous again.

“If a human ever said that sentence, it would look like a weird fetish” he thought. He could smell cow dung. He looked around and he saw a shelter where there are buffaloes tied up. It was 5 in the morning and a man came holding a tin from the shelter. He sat down and started milking the cow. Veeru looked around and saw a calf looking at all the milk being poured into a tin. “It surely is hungry” he thought. After the man collected enough milk, he let the calf suck remaining milk.

Veeru couldn’t control his urge and went up to the milk man. “The calf looks male” Veeru shouts to the milk man. “Yeah it is” milk man replied while pouring the milk into small tins. “Well, what do you do with it? I mean, it doesn’t give milk” Veeru asks. Milk man smiled and said “We sell it to the dealers, they either sell it to farmers or sell it to the beef factories” he said. Veeru looks at the calf drinking milk from its mother that’s tied to a pole.

The unfair

“It’s unfair” Veeru whispers. “What?” the milk man asked and Veeru turned around and started walking towards his home. “Do we even need milk? Or is it because of these farming industries promoting us to drink milk? No animal drinks milk after growing up. We are animals, right? We are drinking milk for its taste! Not for the need. It is not essential. It is a corporate propaganda for all these people to live by selling milk. But if we understood that we don’t need milk, will we buy milk? It is everyone that is brainwashed and addicted to milk. They told us that it is essential! And now we buy it from them. It is their livelihood”

Veeru stares blankly at the stairs without getting up to his home. “It is us who are paying these people to tie cows, buffaloes, and steal its baby’s food because of the common delusion that we all need milk”. Veeru felt like he found out something big. He was happy that he understood something out of the world; found something unfair to him. He understood that it is unfair anywhere in the world. He set foot on the stairs going above to his floor. And while climbing up these stairs, Veeru knew that he is going to fight for it; that he is going to gather more activists.

Hence the activist!

 He decided to take all the guilt of human race to fight against this common unfairness; wanted to save humanity from the burden of mistreating and stealing the calf’s food. He decided to be an activist. And he wanted to find more people who consider themselves an activist, and just go for it! But the world is already in a structural format of drinking milk. It is an order of the world now. Will the world adapt to Veeru? Will the world take up on his guilt the way he took everyone’s? Or will Veeru remain the speck of dust while we sip milk and kill cows?

I know the title is very confusing; you might have heard “Erwin Schrodinger” is a scientist, what he has to do with philosophy or the concept of reality through philosophy? Don’t worry! I’m here to decode it for you, first of all, I would like to thank my friends, regular readers, fam… Ooh, I still didn’t complete the article or get an award for writing this 😞, My bad sorry! Let us continue.

Before we understand the title, if you are new to the realm of science, Erwin Schrodinger is a physicist who is famous for developing an equation called “Schrodingers Wave Equation” which helped to calculate the accurate levels of energy in atoms. He won the Nobel Prize in 1933 for the same. He is also very famous for the experiment called “Schrodinger’s Cat.”

Schrodinger’s Cat Experiment: It is a thought experiment in which a cat and a small amount of radioactive substance are placed in a box. The radioactive substance decays slowly and releases poison or explodes that kills the cat. Until and unless you open the box, the cat is both dead and alive at the same time. It explains that, according to quantum physics, the particle may have wave-like nature, particle nature or both until observed. It is all physics related stuff, how is it related to philosophy you might ask. You are a smart one, aren’t you? Let’s understand that now.

Using this principle, there came a meme, or you can say an interpretation called “Schrodinger Emoticon.” It is a hypothetical person to be happy and sad at the same time, just like Schrodinger’s cat. In the Schrodinger’s cat experiment, the survival of the cat is 50% which implies its death is also 50%. 

Schrodinger’s emoticon or smiley

Now everything around us is made of matter, and the basic definition of quantum physics is the study of almost everything in the universe at the subatomic level. What is reality? The basic definition is the state of things as they actually exist. What is the absolute truth in nature? Atoms!

So if we interpret Schrodinger’s experiment to our reality, if we take a situation, for example, you are alone in a room sitting on a bed. If an observer comes and sees you, he may think you are sad as you are alone. Now imagine the conscious part of the brain is an observer, and you are alone thinking about something. Unless and until you start thinking, your reality can be sad, happy, anxious, excited anything.

If you start thinking, then the conscious part (who is an observer) comes in, determines the mood and help you with the reality. So according to the logic, you are not entirely sad, because you didn’t let your conscious explore other thoughts. You took you are unhappy, and you stopped there. Unless and until you consider all the scenarios, you are not sad.

So until and unless you open yourself, you may be sad, happy or both or anything! The other way of this is, a human cannot have only one emotion in a situation. It is always a mixed bunch. At the starting of the article, I positioned myself taking an award for writing this that may be a reality, but as I opened my box, I’m typing the last line of it. 

Law or flaw?
Judiciary or is some kind of a mockery?
To the brother who’s serving a life sentence;
for the crime he did not do;
That night will forever be of repentance.

The mother who taught him how to walk;
Has got such a shock;
Half of her body is permanently into shock

The father who gifted him his first car;
Is too old & poor to fight
& had to sell the roof which protected them;
From the bright sunlight.

The sister who’s an aspiring lawyer;
Has lost all hopes on the system;
For here innocents are the victims.

And the innocent who is spending his days;
In a 6*6 feet black hole
Is losing the power over his soul;
And for what?
For the doubts in the caste and religion.

So my dear friends,
What and for whom is the evidence?
To be fabricated? To be planted by the money & power holders?
Or for the law to behold the truth?

This poem is a tribute to Mohammad Nisarudin and many more innocents who spend their lives in the jails being the prisoners of the system.


Who was Mohammad Nisarudin and story of few others……

On January 15, 1994, Mohammad Nisarudin was at home in Gulbarga, Karnataka, preparing for his Diploma in Pharmacy final exams, 15 days away. After he qualified, the 19-year-old planned to get a job in one of the Gulf countries, a dream he and his best friend Sajid (name changed) had talked about since they were seven. But that day, the police knocked at the door of his parents’ home and took him away in handcuffs. Initially, the police booked him for a bomb blast that had taken place in October 1993 in a Muslim educational institute in Hyderabad, then he was booked in a few unsolved bomb blasts that had taken place in August and September in 1993, then he was booked under the anti-terror law Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) — which was repealed two years later, in 1996 — for planting the bombs that took two lives and injured 22 in five trains on December 5 and 6 1993 in Mumbai, and after a ‘confession,’ put into Ajmer Central Jail. On February 28, 2005, a TADA court at Ajmer convicted him and gave him a life sentence.
On May 11 2016, the Supreme Court ruled that his confession, which was taken in police custody, was totally inadmissible, acquitted him of all charges and set aside his life sentence.
While the length of Mr Nisarudin’s incarceration is extreme, his isn’t an isolated case.

Take Abdul Wahid Din Mohammad Shaikh, 39 now. He was charged of complicity in the Mumbai train blasts of November 7, 2006 and spent nine years in Arthur Road Jail in Mumbai before being acquitted of all charges — the only one of those accused to be acquitted — and released. Mr. Shaikh told The Hindu that all the accused were made to sign many documents, some of which were blank. “Had I known the consequences I would have never done so.” While in jail, he enrolled in a law course, and finished a course in journalism. If he knew something of the law at the time he was arrested, he said, “I would have known what a confession is, what the consequences of signing on any written or blank pages are, what is the rights of an accused are, what the rights of those arrested are, what the duties of an investigating officer and agency are.”

And there is Adnan Mulla, 40, who was sentenced to 10 years for the Mulund blasts of March 1, 2003. Initially he was illegally detained in 2003 and not released because the police wanted to make him a witness. Then he was made an accused after he refused to give a statement against his brother-in-law of Saquib Nachan (former general secretary of the now-banned Students Islamic Movement of India, SIMI). “I spent six years and one month in jail,” he says. Throughout his incarceration, he was kept in the cell, an egg-shaped high-security block. “I was going to get married the same month I was picked up,” he says. “My fiancée waited for seven years for me to be released. Only I know how much she and both our families suffered. How can the loss of time be compensated by any officer or government?”

Who is the system for? Why is the system even their when they take their own sweet time and do not care for the innocents?

Full story: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/prisoners-of-the-system/article17333262.ece

The muddy smell, Rushy road, and stinky drains, it is the rainy season already! Dad and I opened the shutter of our thread shop. Nagaraj uncle didn’t come yet to open his butcher shop. Seems like it will take time for him. As soon as we open the shutter, the smell of thread touches our nose and we love it. Dad put all his bags of threads in place, some outside and some in. We have a tiny area to sit, but we still love it.

Dad takes his towel and waving it, shouts in the market, “Daaralandi, Daaralu, Anni rangula daaralu!” Whenever he sings that loudly, I giggle a lot. I put my tiny hands around his neck from behind and swing on his back. My dad gets his first customer, and I got to say he is an excellent salesman. The customer was pretty happy with my dad’s sensibility and humbleness while speaking. He gave us an order of 500 rupees which is big for us for one day. From the money he earned, he gave me some money to go and buy flowers. My dad loves it when I put flowers in my braid. He says the smell of jasmine makes him happy when I am playing around him.

“Arey Lalitha, where are you running to?” said a voice from behind. I turned to see Nagaraj uncle. “Uncle, you came! I want to eat mutton today. Can you make small pieces for me?” “Ofcourse, my darling! Go and get what you were going for and I will make you the mutton when you return,” Nagaraj uncle said.

I always love running into the flower market. The smell of different flowers in the wind and freshness of flowers reminds me of my mom. My mom was a flower seller too before she died in the floods a few years back. Wow, the view! The beautiful orange Chrysanthemum flowers with the touch of yellow in them mesmerize me. The pink and red roses, just like my mom’s charming smile. There, they are, my lilies and jasmines! Wonderfully weaved with thread. I think thread and flowers have an intense connection, they hold each other to make a pretty ornament to wear in our hair, just like my mom and dad.

“Rangamma aunty, give me flowers please!” I asked, and Rangamma aunty put some jasmine flowers into my hair. I ran back to my dad. “Na bangaru thalli! My dad kissed me on my cheek.” “Ok, bye, nanna! I am going to school,” I said. “Ok, bye!” My dad said. I started walking towards the school. My friend Sundar joined me on the way. He and I are best friends. Suddenly, it started raining. The smell of mud hits us. I love it. We both love rain a lot and started playing in the rain. Rainwater drenched our bags and dresses.

“Let’s run, we are late to school already,” Sundar said. We reached school and see that all children were sitting and we joined them. It’s been 2 hours since we came but it still raining outside. The water has already reached our rooms. Teachers were discussing among each other on if they should send us home. The rain is just increasing minute by minute. We see all school filled with water. The teachers have asked us all to fold our legs onto our benches as they see no way to go out for now. Rain won’t stop. We have no classes today, and we are happily playing on our benches. We wish it rains every day so that we don’t have any classes daily.

After massive rain for an hour, we are hungry, and the rainwater is all over the place. We wanted to go home now. We waited for another hour for the rain to stop. Thankfully, it is decreasing now. But we can’t go out that easily. We will have to wait until something can be done to let the water go out. The school is in up-town so the water was sent to downtowns so that the area can be cleared. After two more hours, the water was almost removed, and we were asked to go back home.

Sundar and I started running back home. The water level started increasing as we moved to downtown. We didn’t know what to do. We were already half-drowned in water. Then some people were going on the boat, and they took us into their boat. When we asked to take us to the Market yard where his father Nagaraj and my father had their shops, they told us that the area is completely drowned. It is highly risky in this rain to go out there. We started panicking and crying. One woman in the boat tried to console us and asked if she can take us with her. We couldn’t help but to go with her. The boat fled to somewhere safe away from my village.

For three days, the rain kept toggling and now finally ended. We stayed in a small hut where the water reach was less. The people with whom we fled took care of us. Now, Sundar and I are missing our families hugely and want to meet them. We asked others to help us reach home, and they asked us to stay calm until the water flow decreases. After two days yet again, the water flow reduced to half. So, we were taken in the boat to the village.

We see nothing but destroyed homes, fallen vehicles, dead bodies, fallen trees right from entering the village. Slowly, we moved towards the market yard. My heart is pounding fast, and I am very terrified. Reaching the market yard, the whole area was stinking, and all I could see was mayhem. Everything was utterly drowned, and water was stuck with nowhere to go. People around were saying that no one actually who worked there is alive anymore. Tears started rolling out my eyes.

 I see a board hanging at the top of a wall, “Lalitha Thread Shop” it read. I couldn’t stop myself from crying. Our shop was unidentifiable. The complete market yard was gone. Sundar and I didn’t see this coming. Soon then, another boat came flowing. A woman shouted from that boat, “Lalitha, Sundar, you guys are safe? Thank god!” It was Rangamma aunty. She said that our fathers and others of the market yard in trail to save their shops, lost their lives and she got lucky, someone saved her.

After 50 years today, it is raining again, and my thread shop is at threat of drowning. My child is at school. Sundar went to pick him up from school. But this rain won’t stop at all. I will try to live and save our shop from drowning for my child. “Yes, we all shall try to save our shops,” a neighbour shop owner said.

In the last article, we have understood the concept of antimatter and its applications. In this article, let us know the concept of black holes.

Blackhole: In simple terms, we can define blackhole as space which has a powerful gravitational force. So strong that even light can’t escape it. In physics terms, A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing, no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.

Black holes are formed when dying star implodes itself at the centre and creates a “supernova”. A supernova is a star that increases significantly in brightness because of a catastrophic explosion that expels most of its mass. As even light cant escape black hole, black holes are not visible to the naked eye. 

There are two main parts of a black hole, the event horizon and singularity. Let us try to understand them.

  1. Event Horizon:  It is the boundary surrounding the region of space of a black hole from which nothing (not even light) can escape.
  2. Singularity: In the heart of a black hole is a gravitational singularity, a one-dimensional point which holds a huge mass in an infinitely tiny space. The density and gravity become infinite and spacetime curves infinitely. The laws of physics as we know them to cease to operate.

If we fall inside a black hole, we don’t get sucked in like a vacuum cleaner. If we fall inside, we get stretched vertically and compressed horizontally. We are stretched to an extent where you become hot stram of plasma. As gravity acts like a million times more than the standard gravity, your body becomes a massive massacre. But for the nth zeptosecond you are in the black hole, you can see the universe in fast-forward like looking into the future.

The sun of our solar system cannot be turned into a black hole as it is not massive enough to explode. But hypothetically if it turns, there will be no effect of planets as the gravitational force in the solar system would be the same. But we will freeze to death due to lack of sunlight. Let us understand the history of the black hole.

History Of Black Hole: Albert Einstein first predicted the existence of black holes in 1916, with his general theory of relativity. The term “black hole” was coined many years later in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler. After decades of black holes being known only as theoretical objects, the first physical black hole ever discovered was spotted in 1971. 

In 2017, using eight telescopes known as “Event Horizon Telescopes,” the first image of the black hole was captured.

First black hole image.

Applications Of Blackhole:

  1. Black Holes gives us a way of studying abstract concepts like gravity and general relativity, magnetic field and many properties of these concepts.
  2. A supermassive black hole is theorized to be at the centre of every galaxy, implying it is necessary for the existence of a galaxy.
  3.  It explains the concept of Tidal Forces.
  4. It accounts for a significant amount of mass in the universe.
  5.  A moving or spinning black hole can hypothetically create a wormhole, a way of transitioning across space faster than light. It is hoped that in the future some means of transport can be founded to help us travel in these portals, which may lay the base for the search of extraterrestrial beings and uncommon minerals and elements.

” I’ve given up emotionally, and nothing excites me anymore. I’ve tried and tried and now I’m tired and done!” This statement is not from a 60 plus -year-old guy who has seen everything in life. The line is from a 23-year-old guy who just started the phase of life and a close friend of mine.

So what made a 23-year-old guy give up in life emotionally? I believe experiences in life doesn’t come with age; it comes with circumstances. I was in touch with him regularly for the past three weeks, and the way he described his activities every single day were horrific.

He is John for you regular readers if you remember from the article under “Understanding A Life Past Trauma And Depression.” Here is the link for the same: https://penfluky.com/2020/10/18/understanding-a-life-past-trauma-and-depression/

So John was recovering from PTSD, he completed his graduation at his uncle’s house from his hometown. His parents moved to another city. The uncles family didn’t like John due to some reasons. He was not given enough food and was taunted regularly for petty issues.

It became so severe that John had seizures due to this, where he was in the hospital for three days. The doctor examined it and prescribed medication for one and half year. John used to get heavy headed and sleepy due to medication, but he recovered and started to focus on his career.

As we know, John is interested in arts; he wanted to be an artist. Once he completed his graduation, there was a financial issue in his family. His family wanted him to join corporate and work. John told about his passion and said he didn’t want to work. His father abused him so much that he got a panic attack and later beat him with a belt.

Giving up his passion, John joined one of the biggest company in the world and is working there. As far as I know, John is a very cool guy, and he handles pressure very well. To prove that, the first year he joined he won 4 “performer of the month” awards and once the year came to an end, he won “performer of the year” award.

About three weeks back, John was very quiet for a few days, and I messaged him to enquire on the same. He talked in a normal tone, even cracked a few jokes, and I thought he was genuinely busy. But something inside me said he was not okay.

When I stressed it, he gave a pause of an hour without replying anything. After an hour, my phone vibrated, and it was his text. His exact lines were “I don’t know how I’m doing, I’m not even sure if I’m alive.” By seeing this, I panicked, and I asked: “What is wrong?”

He started telling “From the moment I joined corporate, I see my dream die daily. I don’t have a count, but I had many sleepless nights and cries. There are issues in the house, my dad always says he regrets my birth, as I didn’t score good in graduation and doing a petty job.”

“Heck I even tried to run away by getting off from a cab at a different location. But due to my love towards family, I couldn’t do that. It has been 22 months that I have seen the sun in my life. I’m doing night shifts since then. I recently got my health checkup done and I have a bone density of a 60 year old.”

“By seeing this, any parent would be saying fuck that job, leave it and do whatever you want, my parents said everyone has problems, just keep them aside and keep working. I think I’m the special one to get this type of treatment.”

“There is only one thing that has been good in my life, my friends, and I have very few. They might not consider me as their friend, but I always love, cherish and respect them. You might ask a question on if you have good friends, why don’t you talk to them and share your grief with them? I don’t want to disturb their life with this. I can vouch that no one would be normal by listening to this.”

“I agree everyone in life has problems, but there will be a few laughs and moments to cherish. But I’m very honest with you, the last moment I had a genuine smile on me was probably months ago when I joined this new incredible team and got some amazing friends. In the past fucking two years, I worked for someone, didn’t spend the money on myself, have no savings, broke down to the core and I don’t know what to do.”

“As I’m working from home now, none in the house talk to me, for the fuck sake I cook my food despite living with the family. I recently got a promotion, and now I have to speak to clients via phone, earlier I used to email them. Imagine a guy not talking to anyone in the house the whole day and suddenly taking calls. Its bizzare.”

” I have come to a conclusion, I have fucking reached my breaking point. I can keep trying, but one +one is always two, it cannot be 0 or 3, and it is the universal truth. For the past three weeks, I cooked almost daily, mentally fucked up, no one talked to me in the house, I cried nearly every day. Yes, crying may be useful for health, but regular crying is not, it fucks up everything. “

” I want to say I fucking give up, and I’m done hoping my mother would wake me up with a smile, my dad would speak to me nicely, misunderstandings would be cleared, me smiling genuinely or loving me. I’m done, nothing excites me anymore. I hope death would be peaceful rather than dying everyday.”

After this, I didn’t know what to text him. I hope he finds peace one or the other day.

Object, object… object! Remember what an object is—an object some item, some ‘thing’, some being, something with existence. If an object is an existence, a man is an object; a woman is an object. What is man? A thing that has a penis, but gay people have a penis, a penis doesn’t make a man. Okay, the appearance of gay is man, gay is the man. Man is a man, and gay is man, so man is not a penis. Man is a mere abstract concept of appearance, just words!

Concept, the concept is something that is a widely accepted idea. The idea that is spread and I guess it doesn’t need to be widely accepted. An idea is a concept? Then why do we call it a concept? Maybe the context differs. The context! The context of things changes words that we use and meanings that the words mean. So, context, context is important!

“Fuck you” I yell in a comedy situation, and people begin to laugh. Context! “Fuck you” in a rather angry scene makes people thrash me. Context! How to put this? Sentence? Word? Phrase? Rhetoric? I have these recurring thoughts! Context! Subject! Idea! Abstract! These words that run in my head. Imaginations, the thoughts, the desire, the context! I think of pictures, my thought, pictures! I think pictures and visuals.

The visuals of the things that I see, the pictures they appear in my head. My head gives me words, I arrange words to describe the pictures that I see in my head! The visuals! I’m explaining the visuals in my head in a grammatical form to make others understand! Understanding, understanding is crucial for communication. For communication, we need common words.

Common words we assign common meaning. It doesn’t make sense to have different meanings! Meaning! Meaning is a concept that we give to the visual we have in our brain! I assign this visual of a structure in my mind as a rectangle. But are you thinking of a rectangle, when I use the word rectangle? Thinking! Thinking differs, you hear my words, you don’t see my visuals! My visuals are for me!

How can I show you my visuals? Only through mere translations! Translation of those visuals into words! Words that we assign meaning to the visuals. Meaning, the abstract concept of shared understanding. So it is possible of misunderstanding! Misunderstanding, because the word you give to your visual might be different from mine. Even when the words are shared, our visuals are different. 

The rectangle is titled 45 degrees in my visuals. It might be the visual I refer to whenever I imagine a rectangle. But for you, it might be a shape that is on the board drawn by your teacher! Our rectangles have similar attributes, but our rectangles are different! Communications, language and understanding are flawed and create miscommunication and misunderstanding too. But language is the closest victory that we have to communicate. It is flawed, but it is successful, the damages are collateral!

I have put my hand on my keyboard, write! Write in a way… in a form.. in a structure.. understandable structure. But structure destroys! Destroys the visual that is in my head! Can I break the structure? Is a broken structure understandable? My visual explained in the phrase is adjusted! My visual explained in words, words that mean something. Some common attribute, some common understanding. And no form. No sentence form, mere thought! Mere visual, mere word! Read the word! Reading the words create understanding rather than distortion! Oh, the distortion is a diversion, the message! And the message is being sent.

Sent to your mind, you understand me! You understand me more without a form if you see through the words! The words are mere masks, the form -a mere romance, the words are beautiful when they are understood in the same way that they are meant! For that, we need no form, of course, form – beautiful but form is censored. The words that create visuals! The sentences that direct your visuals to appropriate translations. If we did those if we told in a way to communicate our visuals rather than words. We mean a lot, we mean exact! The exact is understood and never misunderstood! Ah, our rectangles will be the same with specifics! Specificity increases and details a visual. Visualise better, explain detailed and our rectangles might just become the same!

Aakash is excited to visit his grandmothers after a long time and is waiting for his train to arrive. The train after a 20-minute delay finally arrives, and he gets in. Aakash is looking for a seat, and finally, a finds a chair beside a beautiful looking girl and gets love at first sight feels.

Aakash makes a sign asking if he can sit there, the girl looks around nods and says okay., he makes all types of efforts to talk to the girl; he gathers the courage and speaks to the girl.

She smiles and giggles for his gestures. They are having a lovely time together. There is an old aged woman who observes the same and gets angry. After some time she loses it and speaks to Aakash with an angry tone.

“Mister what are you doing? It is a public place, not your bedroom. Behave properly and you girl didn’t your parents teach you manners? Laughing at a stranger jokes and what dress are you wearing on a public place? Learn our culture and traditions. If you do this once more, I will call the police.”

After some time, the old aged women got out of the train, Aakash turns to the girls and says “Is that your mother?” The girl laughs and says “no”, “You gave me great relief by saying that she was not your mother” he smiled.

“Well, yeah the way she reacted was really motherly. But one thing I can tell my own mother would have never did this” girl says. “I hope she don’t have any daughter otherwise she will be going to her daughter’s in-laws house herself,” says Aakash said. And they both burst into laughter at this thought.

They sat there for a while in silence. The silence was comfortable, “By the way, what’s your name?” Aakash asks. She hesitates at first, but then she says “Aarushi”. “What’s yours?” she asks back.

“Aakash,” he says and gives out his hand, and they shake it. The rest of the journey was good. They don’t ask anything personal to each other. The train reached Aakash’s destination, and he stands up. The train halts here as a break. Both step out to the platform and looks at each other. Aakash says goodbye, and they exchange numbers after that Aakash leaves.

Aarushi types the number in her phone and what she saw was beyond any expectations. Aryan, the unknown boy she fell in love with, who called her a wrong number. All memories danced in her head as she collects the memories from a secret room in her brain, which was hiding for the last four years.

Her mind filled with questions like “Will he ever knew that I am his “Neha” if I called?” “Do Aakash know Aryan? Or Aakash is Aryan? “And above all, if he is Aryan then do he still loves me?” Or he just forgotten about me?”
She thinks “I don’t know if I will be able to say my real self to Rahul if I called him or vice versa. But of one thing I will absolutely never forget that Aryan was my first love and even if he doesn’t come back to my life or any other man who comes, he will be my first forever.”

While all these thoughts run in her mind, her destination arrives, and she gets down. She goes out of the station, finds a taxi and heads home. She couldn’t control the curiosity and calls Aakash. Aakash lifts the call and says “Hie Neha, I missed you and I love you!”

Depth, well, it is one of the words that is analogous to many other things. While all the other secondary meanings of the word are related, the primary meaning would be ‘the distance between the top and bottom surfaces’. Even when it comes to a movie, the depth becomes a lot of things too. For suppose, the depth of a film can indicate the story going to deeper levels or the subject of the movie being deep. But we are particularly talking about the depth of field!

But technically, or to say, visually, depth or precisely depth of field is something that deals with focus. Depth of field is the field of vision that is in focus in a particular shot. Different camera lenses allow a certain depth of field. The aperture of a camera lens decides the amount of light that the sensor captures. Hard to understand, right? Let us break it down!

How does a camera function?

A camera is something that captures light through sensors. When you click the capture button, the light reflecting from the subject falls on the sensor. The shutter closes, and the captured light develops an image. Cameras are something that can control time with light. You can capture a moment of running time, and you can freeze that particular moment and hang it in your homes.

Aperture

Aperture is the hole of the lens. The light that passes from the subject is passed through the aperture of lenses before hitting the sensor. You can adjust the size of the aperture, and it affects the photo differently. When the aperture (opening) of the camera is wide open, it lets in all the light coming from outside. When more light falls on the sensor, only the subject appears clearly, and the rest of the background becomes blurred.

Because of the vast light that is going in through large aperture, this blurring of the background happens. And the blur occurs because the background is not in the depth of field. Depth of field is the area of focus in an image or a video. By making the aperture wide open and letting in more light, you decrease the area of focus, and only the subject of the image appears clearly.

depth of field and aperture

Similarly, if you decrease the size of the aperture, the light hitting the sensor is reduced. By each point of decrease in the aperture, the area of focus begins to increase. And if you tighten the aperture to the largest and closest, you can observe that now even the background is clear and not blurry. This blurring and focusing of subject and background happen because of the light going in and hitting the sensor.

F – stop

Something much more critical and confusing here is that the values of changing the aperture are referred to as ‘f-stops’. If you change the f-stops, the aperture either increases or decreases as per your requirement. The f-stops are fractions and are measured as f/1.8, f/2.8 and may have greater f-stops till f/22 or even higher. The common mistake one can commit while talking or understanding f-stops are about how they impact aperture.

It is clear to use that if aperture (hole) is wider then it lets more light in and the depth of field (area of focus) decreases. And if the aperture is close and tight having a smallest possible opening, it only lets little light and the depth of field increases. The f-stops with smaller numbers indicate wider aperture and the ones with bigger numbers indicate tighter aperture.

f stops and depth of field

It is that, greater the number of f-stop, lesser the opening of the aperture. And lesser the number of f-stop, greater the opening of the aperture. So, if you want to take a picture focusing only the subject and blurring out the background, you should choose lesser f-stop number on camera as it means that you are widening your aperture and letting more light. Thus, decreasing the area of focus, i.e., depth of field!

depth of field cheat

Wrapping up!

We have discussed how the depth of field is created, shifted and used to take pictures or videos. In the following week, let’s get into the practical use and ways of depicting the depth of field. We shall also see different types of uses of the depth of field to tell stories visually.

India, a country which is rich in its heritage and culture. Thinking about Indian history, my mind quickly jumps into the ancient urban civilizations of India, one of which is Indus Valley civilization or Harappan civilization.

Indus Valley Civilization-

harappan civilization

It dated back in 7000-600 BC. It was first found in Harappa in Punjab region in 1921, hence, Harappan civilization. Later, it was also found in Mohenjodaro in 1922 near Indus river.

The civilization was beautifully constructed in 1500 km. The animals like elephants, pigs, cattle, dogs, fowl, camels and buffalo were domesticated. The script of Harappan civilization is called Dravidian script and hence, people were called Dravidians. They used to grow wheat, barley, mustard, sesame, some stones of date, and cotton for survival.

Artefacts-

harappan civilization seals

The cities have shown incredible artefacts like small seals which were made with a type of talc called steatite. The dancing girl and beard man artefacts are quite famous from the remains of Harappan civilization. These seals are generally assumed to have been used for identification.

The decline of Harappan Civilization-

Both cities, Harappa and Mohenjodaro have been flooded quite many times before their decline. They have been devastated economically before they were attacked. The history shows that they have been attacked by some white-skinned people who priorly were considered Aryans. But the fact that Aryans have fled peacefully ruled out this theory. Anyway, the cities were already in decline, so it was evident that they are going to fall.

Coming to culture, it is expected that they used to worship a female deity as for pregnant women and a male as for wild animals. Apart from that, there are no shreds of evidence of any temples. The metals like Copper, Gold, and Silver were available which were either imported or already available. These cities were identified as world heritage and still remain in the regions of Pakistan.

Today we are going to talk about the people who have always been pulling you down. It shouldn’t matter what they say because that’s what people do; they were born to poke their nose in others life and it will always continue no matter what.
But what they never said was: There will be families where none other than your own parents would pull you down and make you feel like you owe your life to them. And to top it all off, our beloved old generation siblings add the cherry on the cake.

If ever you face such a situation, don’t ever be sad. There’s only one solution to do this: You have got to be independent, take your own decisions and most importantly understand that: Your life is only yours and yours to live and shouldn’t be lived on dictations. For regret & being unhappy will never leave their shadow in such a case. We have all known families where social status and show-off have been of utmost importance to them more than their own kids.
‘So don’t be disheartened my child, for this life was given to you because of your strong mind and strong willed nature and always remember you have come in this world by yourself so you have got to give top most love, care to yourself and always do what’s best for you as long as it doesn’t cause damage to something or someone intentionally.

We have only one life to live (technically yes, though there’s reincarnation and stuff but one doesn’t really know how it works), so yeah it’s true to say You Live Only Once as who you are known today. So why live it concentrating on the negatives and how much you’re being pulled down?

There will be instances wherein you’ll be forced to choose professions for family & to take it forward. No, it definitely isn’t wrong to choose those as long as they make you happy and you got a real family who genuinely cares for you and your future and not just the society. In India, the notion of society has always been the evil between family love and bonding and it’s likely never to stop so if you don’t take your stand today. So do what you love, get out of a filthy non-appreciating house for that negativity will always surround you no matter how much you try to run away from it and it will eventually turn you into a human you never wanted to be.

Embrace the pulling down and get over it…. it sure will take time but I promise you’ll get over it once you start living for your betterment & nurturing.

So sweety, break free today for you don’t know what tomorrow holds for you so… live it like a free bird for cages are build only of thoughts & societies.

From a single formed life organism to the complex human structure, from killing to survival to killing for fun, the world has always been a chaotic place. If you think 2020 lockdown is making your life hard, I must say you are going to have a huge reality check in this article. 

If there is any external issue affecting your life like someone threatening you, giving rape threats, giving murder threats, racist comments, abuses from a stranger or it may be anything the first thing that comes to the mind is legal help is the first thing that comes to your mind, and that is awesome.

But there is a killing generally done by the government without the final say of the court, constitution or any security body of the country. It is called “Extrajudicial killing.” 

Extrajudicial Killing: An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process. They often target political, trade union, dissident, religious and social figures.

In the world of 195 countries where most of them are governed with democracy, this practice violates the fundamental human rights that come with democracy and the respective constitutions of the nations. So how is this a bad practice to democracy? Let us find out.

When a crime happens, the general procedure is to take the accused to court, submit proofs, and if found guilty, the punishments are given based on the offence. The person should not be even called a “Criminal” until proven in court; they are called “accused.”

In extrajudicial killing, The investigation hardly takes place; there is not even the formal complaint filed. It straight away violates the human rights of individuals, denying them any opportunity of contacting their legal representatives or lawyers.

By this, we cannot know the story of the person who is accused. The procedure of giving punishment is only with the judiciary, and no one can intervene in this. When the government takes the law procedure of giving sentences to hand, it the violation of the law and even the government cant be held accountable and be punished. 

There are many incidents in which innocent people lost their life due to this. The history of extrajudicial killing goes back to famous People like Julies César. During the civil war, there is a term used as ‘lynching’. Lynching is an extrajudicial killing carried out by a mob a, often by hanging, but also by burning at the stake or shooting.

The obstacles to end this are not something impossible but achievable. Various factors affect extrajudicial killing. There are specific prerequisites and prevention programs in most countries, but there is no definite law prohibiting unlawful killings from preventing this kind of human rights violation.

Yes, the judiciary system might be slow in handling a few cases as it might need more concrete proofs to pass a judgment. That doesn’t mean the government can take the law into the hand and pass out assessments. Imagine what the everyday citizen would think? It would always send a wrong message to the citizens regarding the law.

Many honorary bodies like the United Nations and International Human Rights Commission have condemned this act. They have taken up many unique programmes to spread awareness on this and stop this. Their efforts are going strong, but the results are not very promising. 

The government should stop interfering in judicial affairs, and there must be strong law implemented, where if the government interferes a stringent action must be taken like dissolving the government. Then these activities will come to a halt. 

Let us hope that these come to an end as soon as possible and everyone gets equal justice.

I have been reading this book, nausea, for quite a long time. No matter how short this book is, don’t fall for the less number of pages, it is a lot of content that exhausts an average mind. When I began this book, I read 85 pages in a single go. But then, I didn’t dare touch it for two months. It is not that I didn’t want to open the book; there was never a moment that I didn’t think about it.


Everything I look reminds of “nausea”. The way Jean-Paul Satre wrote the book, he takes time to explain everything around the character. The character hits an existential crisis and begins to observe everything around him keenly. He begins to explain everything to us in a detailed manner. We are reading his journal, the pages left from his diary. His name is Antoine Roquentin, and his dairy explains all his thoughts and feelings about everything.

There is a page where Antoine explains how he felt anxious when he thought about his existence. He keeps reminding himself that he exists. And he keeps repeating “I think therefore I exist” in his mind numerous times and at the end, says, “I think therefore I am moustache” and loses it! He begins to question everything since he picks up a rock to skip it in a river; begins to question the essence of stone, and since then, he asks the nature of everything.


He begins to contemplate people, their actions, lifestyles; doesn’t see meaning in doing whatever it is. And he questions everything in a rather radical manner by drowning in absurd imaginations. Jean-Paul Sartre has carefully written the thoughts of Antoin in a way that while reading the pages that consist of anxious thoughts, we feel nervous too. I found myself observing everything in a more detailed manner and started describing things around me after reading 85 pages in a single go. I’m like Antoin too, and this book acted like the rock for him in his story.

Ever since I have read those pages, I became sensitive to smell. I began keen on observing the smells of everything. I even had a vomiting sensation, literal Nausea after sniffing certain smells. All the world is smells, visuals, audio, touch and taste. And there is nothing more to it; I feared reading this book any more. I needed time to continue reading this gem. And I have overloaded myself with it. After this overdose, something continued its journey with me—the meaning of this particular book.


Even though I have more 80 pages to read, I somehow knew where he was leading with the rest of the book. The effect that the 85 pages have done to my mind, I had the thoughts of Antoin for next 80 pages. I understood Antoin, and I suffered from similar views. I knew where Jean-Paul would lead me next. And I had existential crisis myself at the age of 19, and it was four years ago on 21st September that I first this ‘nausea’ that Sartre calls.


This Nausea bothered me, and I had cried multiple nights because I didn’t know anything anymore. Everything seemed false because nothing had any meaning. I don’t know if this is how it feels for everyone, but the way Sartre had written it down, I could relate to it. I resumed reading the remaining pages to see if I was right and yes, I was. And I predicted right, and it went over like I thought it would. But it was more beautiful than the first half of the book. He did not just raise multiple existential questions; he tried to resolve it.


Even though the resolution is not correctly baked, even Sartre knows that. He didn’t claim to have answers for the problems. Instead, he ended with a note of temporary patches that Antoin would do to avoid Nausea. It is a significant literary work as its style is new, post-modern and unique. Not only for its academic brilliance, but it is also philosophically sound. Unlike other books which claim to be resolutions of your life and offer fake solutions through influence, Nausea is pretty much straight forward and asks you questions. It is up to you to resolve those questions, or you can choose to embrace them.

You might be having a good day or a bad day. You might be depressed or delighted. You might be having a stressful day ahead or an easy-going one; the only thing that can make you smile after a human contact is “food.”

 If you are sad, it makes you feel better. If you are happy, it doubles your happiness. In this article, let us learn about some dangerous kitchen and food practices that we follow every day and how can we stop them, so that we can be happy and healthy.

Using Separate Cutting Boards:

Most of us use the same cutting board for vegetables, fruits, raw meat, cooked meat etc. Never do this, this very harmful and wrong practice. If you use the same board for cooked and raw meat, there is a big chance of cross-contamination of food.

If you use the same board for cutting fruits and vegetables for your salad and resting the raw meat, there is a significant chance that the bacteria in the meat will enter the salad and cause severe health issues. Use separate boards to keep it clean and efficient.

Preheating The Cooking Utensil Correctly:

The typical cooking mistake is not preheating the pan cooking utensil correctly before you start cooking. By not preheating correctly, it delays the process of cooking and even leads to serving raw food.

It is very dangerous, mainly when you are cooking meat or mushrooms. They cause food poisoning, and even there are cases of intestine damage. So preheat the pan correctly before you start cooking.  

Stirring Or Turning The Food Too Often:

It is a classic rookie mistake we all make, checking the food and stirring it often. Many experts chefs say ” stir occasionally” don’t stir frequently. By stirring food frequently there will be a huge quality issue to the food. It may stick to the bottom of the pot, may not cook properly, may lose the flavour and even remain uncooked. Let the food settle down; don’t stir it frequently.

Turning the food frequently, especially meat, omelettes, pancakes, etc., can make it undercook or overcook it. By this, it may be undercooked, lose its texture, lose its flavour, lose its texture, and maybe burnt. Please don’t turn it frequently; let it cook entirely so that it can be healthy and delicious. 

Don’t Eat Hot Food In Plastic Plates: 

Most of us don’t consider this seriously, but this is very important, we should try to avoid plastic, plates, cups etc. for hot foods. Some of the chemicals are harmful to the human body, such as BPA (bisphenol-A) and phthalates. BPA, mainly found in a type of plastic called polycarbonate.

They interact with hot food, which we consume them, and it causes severe health problems. It can lead it various types of cancers, heart diseases and sometimes organ failure. Never consume hot foods in plastic containers. 

In the end, if we avoid the things above we can be safe and keep our loves one safe.

I am someone who binge-watches quite less. Neither I am a fan of TV nor any movie. It’s on a rare occasion that I feel the urge to watch something. When I am angry or sad or confused or anxious, I feel the need to watch something just to escape the tragedy of time and of course so that I don’t have to talk to anyone. This week I felt stressed and scrolled through my Netflix. I am a big fan of drama, psychic thrillers, and rom-coms. So, Netflix apparently showed me in the suggestions this series called, “The Frankenstein Chronicles.” For someone who watches things rarely, we don’t like to surf for many other series. I went for it and I must say, I don’t regret it. So, I thought I should write about it.

Here is the brief about “The Frankenstein chronicles”-

Frankenstein Chronicles is a series that leads by a strong detective character named John Marlott played by the actor Sean Bean. Benjamin Ross and Barry Langford created it based on Mary Shelley’s 1818 novel. John Marlott finds a weird thing at a swamp which looks like a human but is not. The body looks like being stitched and attached. Later, he finds out through a doctor named William Chester, played by Samuel West that the body is actually made of seven different bodies.

For which, John Marlott suspects that the people who were used to make that body were murdered. To find out who possibly can be committing this crime and why he starts to investigate. Through his investigations, he finds out many shocking things that happen about surgeons of England. But sadly, John Marlott’s story ends in an unexpected way. In a nutshell, this story is a must-watch if you are a crime lover. Uhhh, Light-hearted? Please watch in company!

My opinion-

I am a horror fan. So, I expect a lot of horror from the movie, which is a little disappointing. But that being said, the series kept me hooked because of its twists and turns. I loved how everything was placed properly, and nothing was exaggerated. The dull tone used in the movie helped us experience the old times of England. A few shots showing the slum side show us the dark side of big crimes that occur under our nose. The story is a complete package of amazing actors, on-point content and chill in the bones of the watchers.

Wanna read more about movies, and series? Find them here!

In the last article, we have understood the concept of dark matter, dark energy their properties and applications. In this article, we shall understand the concept of “antimatter.” Before that, let us make sure we understand the concept of “matter.”

Matter: Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. All the matter contains small particles called atoms. An atom contains protons, neutrons, electrons and a nucleus. Atoms are building blocks of everything we touch in the real world. The protons, neutrons and electrons are called “Subatomic particles.”

Protons: A proton is a stable subatomic particle that is present in the nucleus of the atom. Protons have a positive electric charge.

Neutron: A neutron is also a stable subatomic particle present in the nucleus of the atom. Neutrons have no electric charge.

Electron: An electron is a stable subatomic particle orbiting around the nucleus of an atom. Electrons are negatively charged and are responsible for carrying electricity in solids. 

Nucleus: Nucleus is a positively charged part of an atom which contains almost all the mass of it. It is the centre of the atom. 

So these are the fundamental properties of matter. Now let us learn what antimatter is.

Antimatter:  Antimatter refers to subatomic particles that have properties opposite to standard subatomic particles. As we know, the normal matter has protons, neutrons and electronics as subatomic particles. Even antimatter has them. They are as follows. 

Positron:  A positron is the opposite of an electron. It has a positive electric charge. 

Antiproton: Antiproton is the opposite of proton. It has a negative electric charge.

When a typical atom and anti atom collide, they annihilate each other and releases energy. It is believed that the big bang has created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. If this is true, why there less than 1% of the antimatter found in cosmos that we have studied so far? Scientists are still trying to figure this out. Let us try to understand the history of antimatter.

History Of Antimatter:  The term antimatter was first used by “Arthur Schuster” in 1898. He proposed anti-atoms, their behaviour, their existence in the solar system and what happens when the atom and anti atom collide. However, these were not considered serious due to lack of substantial proof.

In 1928, “Paul Dirac” developed a theory, which is now known as the “Dirac equation”. He combined quantum mechanics (which explains subatomic particles) with Einstein’s special relativity (which describes a world on a larger scale). It explained how electrons, travelling at near light-speed, behave. Paul used the positive charge and negative charge for the electron in the equation, and the results were astonishingly the same. Thus he theoretically discovered the “Positron” for which he is considered as “Father of Antimatter” and won a Nobel prize in 1933.

In 1932, “Carl D Anderson” passed cosmic rays through a gas chamber (Particle detector) and studied its tracks. To his surprise, he discovered a positively charged particle which has a mass equal to that of an electron. Thus positron is found, which is the experimental proof of antimatter. He won Nobel prize for the same in 1936.

In 1995, scientists at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) made the first antihydrogen by colliding antiprotons with xenon atoms. This collision produces a positron, which was attracted by another antiproton. The antimatter costs $2700 trillion per gram! It is made at CERN to study the nature of the particles. 

Now we have understood the history of it, let us try to understand the applications of antimatter. 

Applications Of Antimatter:

The concept of antimatter led to the foundation of PET ( Positron Emission Tomography), which is used to detect cancers, heart diseases, and many other diseases.

Antimatter studies show that it can be used to treat cancer. By carrying them safely through human skin tissue, the particles of antimatter can react with cancer tumor matter and efficiently eradicate it.

Antimatter can be used as fuel for interstellar space travel. Antimatter collides with matter an explosion occurs, and the two particles and releases energy. Antimatter is considered a perfect fuel since all the collision between matter and antimatter can be converted to energy.

Antimatter can be used to create explosives and other weapons. They will be ten times more powerful than the most powerful nuclear weapons. Because nuclear reactions only release 10% of their energy while gives all 100%.

The major drawbacks of antimatter are its scarcity and production cost. Let us hope that in the future we might find a way to produce the antimatter at a cheaper cost so that we can use the antimatter to its fullest potential. 

How free are you? Free enough to piss on any road we want. But free enough to get away to someplace and spend some time alone? If we are rich, we have to make sure we stay rich, and if we are not, then we should make sure to get rich. The delusion is to get rich so that one can achieve a stature where they can finally be free. But looking it from an outsiders perspective, it is a circle. We begin at some point, dreaming of an endpoint, but it never ends. The quest of life is to finally be free, but when?


If we look at this circle of the chase of life, we can call it a spiral. We begin at some point, and we realise we are not free, we understand that we have to run in the line to be free finally and reach our destination, but that point never comes. If the starting point is ‘existence’ and the endpoint is ‘death’, all that happens in between is a spiral. It is never a straight line; it is always a loop! We chase money instead of an object.

life
Photo by Karolina Grabowska on Pexels.com

No matter how evil that may sound, we all are material beings. It is material that we desire. We work, or we put some labour to gain some fruit. But the fruit of our labour is snatched away from us, and we get a paper called money. The concept is to exchange this paper to buy some material that brings us joy. But our desire to work has not become some object, but our passion is on the very paper, money!


We have begun to buy objects not to satisfy our needs and feel joyous but to live up to the standards of everyone around us. There is nothing wrong with buying what you love. If your target is to enjoy a holiday in GOA and you have worked six months to earn enough money to do that, do that! People make you guilty for buying something for yourself. But there is nothing wrong in purchasing a fleshlight for yourself if you want it.


But if you buy a car just because you have to buy it to create a social identity, you are lost in the spiral of forever chase and EMI! EMI is not dividing your money into specific months; it is dividing your labour too. In the delusion of buying anything you want, you choose EMI. And when you realise that you are drowned in debts, it is too late. It eats your entire salary and salary is not a gift, it is a fruit of your labour!


The only way to be a hacker in this spiral life is to use the money to do what you want. Buy whatever you want. Save just enough for you to live till you get the next job if you are fired, or you left. Utilise the gaps in jobs. Go freelancing if you want and enjoy your own life in the way you want. You have a choice right in front of you. You can either delude yourself in this meaningless existence that you are going to be free some day.
Or you can start living your life in the way you want and embracing the nothingness!

To the heroes,
Whom we compared to superman & batman
Have now become just a number; ZERO.
You got it right;
Police officers are our context of sight.

As a kid I dreamt of being an IPS officer;
with the stars of my shoulders
& head held high to serve my country;
But little did I know
This profession is power & money hungry.

Do I still want to become an IPS officer?
Do I still want to be associated with;
The ones who kill innocents
The ones who take their uniform for granted
The ones who torture people for their ego?
The ones whom the world needs protection from
Rather than thinking of them as the protectors?

The answer is no
And it will never change;
Because promotions, power & money
Have made this profession a means of corruption;
Which has spread like an infection
& is likely never to be anyone’s ambition.


Guys guys, I’m not writing an article on how to get satisfied sexually or reach an orgasm, remove those hands off your pants! Don’t get excited in that way, but get excited differently because the article may turn you on differently 😉. Wait! no kinky stuff! 

In this article, let us learn how to make ourselves hard as a rock so that we don’t get emotional or have feelings. Who wants emotions? Only the weak! We have to be strong and hard! Lets us learn how to be hard.

Don’t Be Sad: Yes, it is that simple! Don’t be sad; being sad makes you weak. Be stern, no matter what happens, don’t let your sadness come out. You may have suffered a breakup, didn’t get the promotion you are looking for, fought with a friend, family issues, or it may be anything don’t be sad.

Even if the issue is out of your hand, don’t feel sad or cry. Just say I’m hard who cares for this shit and move on. If you want to be hard as a rock, you need to live these things. 

Keep Everything Inside: Yes! This is important. Don’t share your feelings with anyone and let everything be inside of you. Let everything contaminate and blow your brain out, but don’t share your feelings, opinions or anything with anyone.

If you share, you will become weak. You need to keep everything inside, suffer for yourself, feel happy for yourself or sad for yourself. You should not share and keep everything inside.

Don’t Avoid Fights:  Never back down or avoid a fight, if possible, ignite conflicts and fight the fuck out. Be a macho and fight for everything imaginable. By this, you will get a firm, and people around you will be scared of you.

By initiating fights you are considered the hardest and ruthless, if you break jaws and bones, you are a gangster. Who is more rigid than a gangster? No one. So pick up or initiate fights you will become harder.

Be Aggressive: You might have listened to songs or read quotes on being like an unleashed dog or a wild animal; the true nature of them is aggressive. So get that aggression, be as aggressive as possible. Break things, have arguments be intimidating.

By this, you can be ruthless and very hard. It helps you create a fierce and aggressive environment around you. This possession of power makes you feel dominating, and you become hard.

In the end, if you attain the qualities above, you will become hard as a rock, the macho man and if possible a gangster. How cool is it? Very cool, like you will have people around you, saluting and cheering you but in fear of course but who cares? You are hard, aren’t you?

Let us roll back for a moment and think when we are born as humans, why the fuck should we be hard as a rock or have no feelings? A human who is free to express his feelings and thoughts when needed is the real hardest person ever! Not the one who keeps fighting or is serious or aggressive. So be the real hard person and let your emotions flow.

The world is divided by borders, indeed! But do you know what brings us all
together? Food! Isn’t it? We all love food, and most of us like to explore
different cuisines of the world for the same reason. Thankfully, for us,
restaurants have made this easier. By offering foods from different cuisines of
the world, they have helped us experience various tastes to satisfy our taste
buds. One of such cuisines which always excites my taste buds is Indian cuisine. I
will share with you in detail about the beauty of Indian cuisine in this
article.

Origin and Adaptations of Indian Cuisine-

Indian cuisine is especially known for its spices and grains. It involves
vegetarian on a large scale. There are some foods that have been inspired by
places like Persia, Ancient Greece, Mongols, and West Asia. The items like
chillies, pepper, tomatoes, potatoes and squash have been introduced by Arab
and Portuguese traders.

Sesame, Eggplant and humped cattle were introduced in Indus Valley during
7000 BC. Due to Indias’ rich foresting and agricultural culture during the Vedic
period, most of the dishes. Indians highly believed in Ahimsa, which led
Indians to follow a mostly vegetarian diet.

According to Ayurveda, the food was
classified in three categories like Saatvic (pure), rajasic (active and
passionate) or tamasic (heavy, dull, slow, gluttonous) which were said to have
a powerful effect on both the body and the mind.

 During the Islamic conquest of
medieval India, the introduction of fruits such as melons, peaches, apricots,
and plums,
and pilaffs, rich gravies and non-vegetarian fare such as kebabs, giving rise
to Mughlai cuisine happened. The Mughals were great fans of cooking; sumptuous
dishes were prepared during the reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan.

When blending of Mughlai and Telangana cuisines took place in the kitchens
of the Nizams, historical rulers of Hyderabad State, it resulted in the
creation of Hyderabadi biryani, a traditional celebratory
the meal made using mutton or goat meat or chicken,
basmati rice, yoghurt, onions, and
spices, considered by many connoisseurs to be one of the finest of the main
dishes in India till date. The British introduced European recipes and cooking
techniques like baking which we all love.

Staples and spices-

Apart from these, the staples of Indian cuisine are
quite famous like atta (whole wheat flour), rice, and a
variety of pulses like masoor(red lentil), toor (pigeon
pea or yellow gram), urad (black
gram),  chana (Bengal gram),
and mung (green gram).

Indian curries are mostly fried in vegetable oil.
In North and West Indian region, groundnut oil has been primarily used for
frying, while in Eastern Indian region, mustard oil is more commonly used. In the
South Indian region, coconut oil and sesame oil are standard. In recent times, sunflower oil and soybean oil have
gained popularity all over India. Hydrogenated vegetable oil, highly known as
Vanaspati ghee is also a highly used cooking medium that replaces Desi ghee.

The most essential and most frequently used spices in Indian cuisine are
chilli, black mustard seed, cumin,
pepper, turmeric, fenugreek, asafoetida, ginger, and garlic. A
trendy spice mix is a garam masala which is usually a powder of five or more
dried spices, commonly comprised of cinnamon,
cardamom,  and clove.

Every region has its own mix of
Garam Masala. One such is Goda Masala which is a popular spice mix in
Maharashtra. Leaves like tejpat,
coriander leaf, fenugreek leaf and mint leaf are commonly used. The use
of curry leaves is something that is typical in all South Indian dishes. In
sweet dishes, saffron, cardamom, nutmeg, and rose petal essence are used.

There is more to say about Indian cuisine, and the
content is endless. Yet, I shall explain about beauty if Indian cuisine of each
region in-depth on an upcoming article.

 

 

 

 

I sat in front of my computer, thinking about what to write for today. And I realised that it had been too long since I wrote about any contemporary issue. I have been avoiding new issues because I see people who exist in the modern world that refuse to accept that there is a problem here. I didn’t have the patience for explanations. But it has been a long time and yeah, let’s take a dig at it! And today’s post is going to be a ‘roast’ on one of the most useless traditions we follow, marriage!

The only logic why marriage keeps on passing from generations to generations is because “My grandfather married, my father married so guess I’ll be married too”. I don’t think anyone even thinks about it. It is like a pre-existing condition that is automatically accepted by everyone without ever questioning it. It is worse than blind faith. Why is it necessary for any human to marry others? What is marriage? A sacred bond, my ass, it is a bond, like a literal paper of bond, an agreement!

Marriage - Rick Morty

“Please read the terms and conditions and sign the document below.”

If by marriage, you mean love between two people and their wish to live together, why do they need a paper? If there is not enough trust in them to live together, why to live together? Who is forcing you guys to sleep on the same bed every day! Why can’t you stay in your own homes and continue loving if you are not sure of living together? I also don’t think most of the married people or people ready to marry think of these things.

No-one even questions why one should marry! I have run around many societal norms, and it pains me to see they exist in the same world where I live. I’m usually referred to as an upper-class punk who haven’t yet faced any severe problems. I accept the silver spoon, but I also get that this silver spoon made it possible for me to be jobless enough to think about a lot of things. That’s what I do, I think! And that is why I am bothered with issues like this!

Marriage is the second most brainless thing humans do; the first is to assume that God is a person and has magical powers. Enough of ranting, and let’s get into why a marriage with no proper understanding is dumb! To get into that, let us explore the idea of ‘arranged marriage’ in Asian and Middle-eastern countries! Sometimes I’m surprised by how people are convinced with the idea of an arranged marriage! It is like “My daughter is ready for mating” “Is it! So is my son. How about letting them mate?” “Wow! great, so you like your son to mate with my daughter?” “Of course! But you have to pay me some rent as I’m letting my son plant a seed in your daughter” “Sure man, that would be pleasure. How about letting me bargain for the rent?” “Not a problem, give me gold instead.” 

Marriage done,

Relatives praising for how the couple is made-for-each-other

Posts online “My better half” “He calls me Baby” “She calls me Tiger.”

Gets on the bed, forces his way in, takes what he believes is his.

Gets pregnant, stays with the ‘tiger’ because of the kids.

Arranged marriages are killing the lives of many women. In a sexually repressed country like India, men and women are abstinent from sex till the wedding. All this repression of 2,3 decades comes out in the form a brutally violent act in which they would care less about the partner’s consent. Because by marriage, you are giving the person right to have sex. Do parents understand that they are letting strangers in their daughter’s pants? Many men suffer from this marriage system too.

In a typical arranged marriage, society expects man to be alpha by hunting money and bringing food while the wife gets to wipe the kid’s ass. The societal pressure on the man to have kids, buy things and own a house make them repressed from living their lives. They live their lives to balance themselves in societal acceptance. And all this starts with the concept of the wedding! Imagine a man born in some house, a woman in some other place. They have met, liked each other and decided they have the perfect compatibility to live together and have agreed to do so. They did not marry, because they didn’t need it. Now again, believing that a couple would stay together lifelong is a crappy thought! I see how married older women refute the idea of divorce. 

“The modern culture is rotten they have too many divorces,” they say! Of course, you would say that aunty, because you are jealous of the couple who decided to break up and live their own life, you never got the chance to live yours. Yeah, of course, you would say that! People expect marriage to last for a lifetime, and the people around us force the couple onto each other if they have a little gap. It is common for a couple to have gaps, and even if they decided to take a divorce, what makes you force them on to each other?

What makes you judge them just for not being together? They decided to not live together just like they chose to live so earlier. But yeah, here’s the problem in societies like India. It is the other people that choose which couple should live together, and thus the right automatically goes to them if you wanted to separate. It was never your choice to live with someone in the first place. You did not have the nerve to fight for your life; you heard the words of predators and hypocritic and jealousy older women. And thus you suffer in the void of a wedding! You couldn’t choose your own life’s choice, and now you take up the lives of other people; the partner and the partner’s family. You suffer in the unbearable weight of this burden! Just because you valued someone else’s opinion and word of mouth!

Ah! Marriage. What a useless affair!

To the giver in you
To all the times you let your self-esteem sit back
To all the times you said;
‘It’s them before me’ & saved them from any attack
And lastly,
To all the times you thought you were at fault
Oh darling, sadly;
None understand kindness comes by default.

So stop there!
Take a deep breath;
For they will take you for a weak head;
So gulp that strong sip of pride;
Because you got nothing to hide.

Take the tide of thoughts
& channelize them into self-care;
For its only you for you
Even when you are a part of a whole big crew.

Set your boundaries;
Say no if you are not comfortable
For they will anyway give you labels.
Get over that unworthy, disrespectful relationship;
And give your self-esteem a good grip.

Dance your worries away;
Drink up that wine
Because you got to shine;
For there’s nothing more prime
Than being happy & loving yourself!



In the modern world, there is a huge impact of technology in our day to day activities. Smart devices have become a part of us, and life becomes very complicated at times without these devices. The concepts of artificial intelligence have become intriguing, and many of us are showing keen interest in the same. In this article, let us try to understand computational intelligence and what are its applications in day to day life.

Computational Intelligence:
It is a process of computing which gives approximate solutions to complex problems. Therefore, it is useful to find solutions for problems which are very time-consuming and move forward. It is also referred to as a synonym to “Soft Computing.” In a vast perspective, it represents the branch of science and engineering concerned with making computers behave like humans.

The main principles of computer intelligence: There are five main important concepts of computer intelligence. Lets us learn them on by one.

  1. Fuzzy Logic: In simple terms, Fuzzy logic algorithm helps to solve a problem after considering all available data. Then it takes the best possible decision for the given input.
  2. Neural networks: In simple terms, the neural network is a series of algorithms that tries to recognize relationships in a set of data through a process that imitates the way of a human brain.
  3. Evolutionary computation: In evolutionary computation, the process of natural evolution (formulated by Charles Darwin) is used as a role model for a strategy for finding optimal or near-optimal solutions for a given problem.
  4. Learning theory: This can be used to bring reasoning of a computer to “Human reasoning level.”In psychology, learning is the process of bringing together cognitive, emotional and environmental effects and experiences to acquire, enhance or change knowledge, skills, values and world views.
  5. Probabilistic methods: Probabilistic methods bring out the possible solutions to a reasoning problem, based on prior knowledge. aim to evaluate the outcomes of a Computation Intelligent system, mostly by randomness.

Applications of computational intelligence: The applications are as follows.

1. Medical: The computer in this has precise moments, more accurate than a surgeon’s hands, which might increase the difficulty in performing procedures under high power microscopic magnification. Examples of such procedures now being performed that was extremely difficult if not impossible before this technology is fallopian tube repair in women, microsurgery on the fetus, and minimally invasive coronary bypass surgery.
2. Farming: For conventional row farming, where machines such as harvesters and combines are being used for a long time. Using the methods of computational intelligence, German tractor maker Fendt has developed a radio-and-GPS system that allows a driverless tractor to follow the lead of an operated one as they make their way around the fields, doubling the output.
3. Industries: The growing sophistication of sensors will make the interaction between mechanical and live workers safe and feasible. Robots such as Baxter, from Rethink Robotics, can work side by side with humans, rather than in areas. Employees will continue to perform tasks that require human judgment, while mechanical helpers take on functions that require endurance or involve hazards such as heat, cold and exposure to chemicals. Robots will lift and move heavy objects.
4. Food Preparation: Food processing is open to robotic replacement. Scientists at the Georgia Tech Research Institute are developing a robotic system that can debone a chicken. With a 3-D vision system, the robot can adapt to different sizes of birds. It uses a feedback system to sense the junction of ligament and bone, thereby reducing the hazard of bone chips.
5. Class Rooms: Humanoid robots will go to the head of the class, taking telelearning to new frontiers. For example, English instruction is in high demand in Asian countries such as South Korea. Enter Engkey, a robot developed by South Korea’s Center for Intelligent Robotics. Engkey teaches elementary school students pronunciation (and sings and dances). Human teachers in the classroom help facilitate Engkey’s interactions. In the Philippines, Engkey’s voice and motions are driven by a native speaker of English. The robot costs are substantially less than paying native English teachers to live and work in South Korea.
6. Military: The four-legged “mule” easily negotiates rocks and divots in the road and field. It is intended to follow a military unit of soldiers autonomously, catching up with the unit on field forays with supplies and allowing them to recharge batteries from its onboard power source. In the field, it’s surprisingly quiet an important characteristic on a secret mission. Future versions of the pack mule will be able to interpret verbal and visual commands.
7. Space Exploration: The research in robots exploring space has made a serious and positive inroad exploration of space. The major problems of human loss in space, higher temperatures, zero gravity has come to an end by using robots in space exploration. Therefore the invention of robots in space exploration not only gave safety but also accelerated the work to the maximum possible extent.



I was sitting in a cafe, sipping a cold drink. The drink passed in my throat, I can feel it going down my throat and falling into my belly. Right when it hit the bottom of my stomach, I couldn’t feel it anymore. This thought struck my mind, and it made e forget that I’m sitting in a cafe. I was lost in my thoughts. This drink, when mixed with all the half-digested junk in my tummy, becomes something else. It isn’t the soda that I drank anymore. It’s some dude’s half-digested stomach acid. So, the soda doesn’t exist now. It existed a while ago till it was in the throat. But now, it doesn’t, and you can’t turn me upside down and get it back. If you try that, you might get that semi-digested white puke that is not the soda anymore.


So, is this what happens to me? What A I? I’m a skeletal structure, and above that, a muscular one fit with all the organs in a way that I have consciousness. I’m me, till I am conscious. So, if I’m not conscious, aware and awake, am I non-existent? I lost in dreaming about ‘nothing’. I could see something black everywhere. But I know that ‘nothing’ would not be black, because black is something, for it to be nothing, I have to imagine a blank space. I realised that it is humanly impossible to imagine nothingness as we have something or the other to always think about. We can not really think nothing like those meditation fantasisers claim. The close one to nothing that I could think was everything!

I imagined everything instead of nothing but excluded me out of the picture; I imagined the world as it is, full of splendour and horror. And I imaged the dog sniffing in garbage and perverts sniffing thrown panties. The world is the same, the mixture of every opinion it contains. Just one difference; I don’t exist anymore. This thought struck me from the back like an ice pick with full of snow on it. I felt breathless like, Jean-Paul Sartre; nausea. Nothing mattered anymore. I can see my reflection in the empty bottle on the table in front of me. It exists, it is a plastic bottle designed to contain a liquid that people consume; It has a purpose that’s solved, and I trash it.  And it goes into the dump and from there it recycles. It’s molten and becomes some other product, or ironically the same bottle again.


But this one, this new transformation is different from the older bottle. Even though it is the same bottle, it is different. It is not the old bottle now, it changed. As per our understanding, its existence has not ceased but transformed into something else or the same thing again. But it is not exact, it is different. Maybe there was an imperfection in the bottle somewhere, perhaps it had an extra plastic layer on it, but it has some new flaws now. It is not the same bottle even if it looks like it. This made me realised how objectified are religious people. Maybe they don’t voluntarily do that, but they compare themselves with objects. They think like this bottle even they are made by some external being, filled with some purpose, and after the fulfilment of that purpose they believe they are re-used.


I think I know how they came to this conclusion. The religious people are just like me, just like how I felt about this soda bottle, they thought about it too, looking at the mirror. They compare themselves with the things that they see because these things are what immediate to our sense and intellect. We can see them, think them. But we can’t think about what is not there. We can’t think about the things that happened before us that connect to us. We don’t know what our parents were thinking about before conceiving us. Or we don’t know what happens in the baby-making factory of God. We don’t even know if God is a dude or an animal. What we speak about or think about God or anything that we haven’t seen by comparing it with things that we have seen and try to make it sense.


But we haven’t seen them, we are not capable of thinking about something before or after our existence. But I have successfully done that. I have thought about the world where I don’t exist. I ceased to exist. I’m lying in the ground, six feet under. Years have passed, and my descendants don’t even know that it is me that brought them into existence. The graveyard has been destroyed, and now the land is a real-estate venture. The tractors moved the soil. My fragile bones broke because of the pressure, and now they got jumbled; My favourite face, the beautiful face that I apply moisturiser every day is now a skull with no features half-cracked inside the ground. And my flesh in the tummies of maggots long back now. My energy drained in the soil went into the roots of a plant. It sucked me with its rots from the humus. And my jaw, my beautiful jaw broken because of the soil-digging, has now surfaced. My jawless skeleton lay underground.

This spectacular jaw attracted the skinny stray dog. It found a play toy in this calcium deposit that I once wielded a majestic beard; It held the jaw in its mouth and ran all over the venture. And It played with my jaw, and the tooth that was stuck on it fell on the ground. My sharp-canine got into a car tyre, made it flat. This angry driver threw my tooth out of this tyre on the filth beside the road. I exist! I exist in the plant’s body, I exist in the maggots that have eaten me, I exist in the dog’s mouth and car’s tyre. But it is not me, it was me, but not me now. Now it is a mere veil that had held me like the empty bottle with no soda. My muscles, my organs, my brain and my functions and my user-interface, the mind, they don’t exist. I transform into a plant, my cells live.

I existed even before I was born, like the stardust. We all don’t cease to exist, we transform. And we change from a being sitting in a cafe sipping a cold drink to dog’s play-bone and a maggot’s midday meal. We are eternal. It is just our consciousness that is not. It is a limited offer which is a result of evolution by natural selection. The cell in evolution had thought it’s best if this ape gets consciousness. Thus, the mind, and existence of consciousness. And here I exist. As a memory in the mind of myself writing this in the future after my cafe episode. Then the regular diversion have started. I have crossed all these thoughts off my brain; I wanted to close my eyes for a while and when I open it, I don’t want to picture my death anymore. And I want to delude myself into believing that I have a purpose like that plastic bottle.

I have lot of things to do, it is time to work, I thought. I stood-up walked away and looked all these people in the cafe, not knowing what happens to them after dying. They think they will transport to heaven or some think they stop existing. No, they exist, in a different form. A form that we don’t want to imagine. We turn in to the half-digested juice of this world’s other beings. But no, why should we think about it, it doesn’t matter. Let’s just look at that toe massager, dream of buying it. Let’s chase a paper print called money. Because I think any diversion is better than thinking about this. Or maybe we can embrace it, by calling it a random event that we had no say.

Our purpose, or to be precise, the purpose for us to have consciousness is to make these cells replicate and live long. Thus our purpose ends as other beings in the world use our energy, cells and etc. Hence our purpose solves. We transform! We exist, not same, but different!

Sitting by the lake
Feels like I have got my long-awaited break
I’m all to myself today
with my thoughts to play.

The sway of the wind reminds me of her;
As though she’s calming putting  me to sleep
The stillness of the water reminds me of her;
As though she’s taking the sun to keep me in shade.

I wish you and Abba were still together;
For I miss the night binging,
The popcorn fights;
It was like we were the perfect tribe.

What changed the days and nights?
For it all went away with your fights.
I still ask myself;
And what if I could make it all right;
But then you’re too far away from our sight.

Being abandoned will forever haunt me;
For all the questions are unanswered;
Because a closer is what Abba & I will never see.
But wherever you are; I will always wish you happiness;
After all, you haven’t taught me what it is to follow pettiness.

  1. Did you know?
    Following parents’ separation, children may regress, display anxiety and depressive symptoms, appear more irritable, demanding and non-compliant, and experience problems in social relationships and school performance. So why let your own child suffer for your decisions? Every parent deserves to be happy and so does the child so give them a proper closure before taking any steps.


    Here are some medically certified ways of breaking the news to them in case of such an unfortunate event:
  2. Bring up the topic a good 2 to 3 months before any separation is set to begin: This gives kids some time to process the situation.
  3. Be sure you have a plan in your mind: even if it’s loose. Your child will probably have a lot of questions about logistics (who’s moving out, where they’re moving, what visitation might look like, etc.), and it’s assuring to them if there’s some framework in place.
  4. Have the talk in a quiet space that’s free from distraction: You may also want to make sure there are no pressing obligations later on in the day. For example, a weekend day may be best.
  5. Consider telling your child’s teacher a day or so before you tell your child: This gives the teacher a heads up if your child begins acting out or needs support. Of course, you can also request that the teacher doesn’t mention it to your child unless your child mentions it to them.
  6. Hone in on certain points: like how you and your partner didn’t come to the decision easily. Instead, you have thought about this for a long while after trying many other ways to make things work better.
  7. Assure your child that the split isn’t in response to their behaviour: Likewise, explain how your little one is free to love each parent fully and equally. Resist casting any blame, even if it seems impossible given the circumstances.
  8. And be sure to give your child room to feel how they need to feel: You may even want to say something along the lines of, “All feelings are normal feelings. You may feel worried, angry, or even sad, and that’s OK. We’ll work through these feelings together.

Why is taking care of your immune system important?

It’s simple. The immune system is the defence mechanism of our body, and it is our responsibility to keep it safe. But isn’t it another way round? You may ask. But the body is like tree guys! The proper you water it, give it nutrition, the more you bear the fruits. The better you provide nourishment to your body, the more it will keep you safe. That is why taking care of your immune system necessary. So, how do we take care of it? Here is a simple plan to follow, to keep your immune system strong and healthy.

Step-1-

Mindful eating-

Some of you might have stopped there itself when I said mindful eating but don’t worry. Mindful doesn’t have to be tasteless. You don’t have to punish yourself. Mindful eating includes following proper nutrition. Make sure you eat the right amount of carbohydrates, healthy fats, protein, fibre, vitamins and all the essential nutrients in your food. Apart from nutrients, see that your food includes good enough medicinal properties.

Spices like clove, thyme, cinnamon, oregano, and cumin are rich in antiviral and antimicrobial properties. Vitamin C is rich in fruits such as citrus fruits, kiwis, and several cruciferous vegetables. Protein is also essential for immune health. Include more plants and plant-based foods. Add fruits and veggies like Carrots, broccoli, apricots, citrus fruits and strawberries, spinach, red bell peppers, which are good sources of vitamins A and C. At the same time, seeds and nuts will provide you protein, vitamin E, and zinc. Additional sources of protein and zinc can be seafood, lean meat, and poultry.

Step-2-

Stress reduction-

Do you know that long-term stress might lead to chronically elevated levels of cortisol? When there is stress in your body, your body relies on cortisol. But when you continuously stress yourself, the cortisol levels keep going up discouraging the immune system to work well.

There are many effective stress-reducing techniques. Meditation, journaling, or any activity that you enjoy cannn help you reduce stress. Try and do at least one stress-reducing activity every day.

Step-3-

Quality Sleep-

We all have a myth that one needs to sleep only six hours or less. But, no. Everybody is different and requires an additional amount of sleep. Take enough time to sleep if you want your body and mind to work correctly. The body heals and regenerates while you sleep. Your immune system will go critically down if you do not give your body enough time to heal. Take 7-8 hours on an average to keep yourself healthy.

Step-4-

Exercise Regularly-

Apart from a good body, the reason why one should excercise is that when you are active, you are automatically decreasing the chance of chronic diseases like obesity and heart disease. When your body is active, it will relieve you from sluggish thyroid, allowing your body to function correctly. Women mostly face problems like PCOD/PCOS/irregular periods when they focus less on their body activity. A 30-minute morning walk will help you improve Vitamin-D and keeps you highly active. Exercise improves endorphin levels in the body which creates a sense of pleasure in you.

Step-5-

Decrease alcohol intake-

High amounts of alcohol are associated with negative health effects like low immune function. If you drink high amounts of alcohol, your body is busy trying to detoxify your system.

High alcohol consumption can weaken your body’s ability to fight infection and slow down your recovery time. That is why people who drink high amounts of alcohol face a greater likelihood of diseases like pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, alcoholic liver disease, and certain cancers.

Step-6-

Don’t Smoke!

Cigarette smoking will also affect immune health. The chemicals released by cigarette smoke like carbon monoxide, nicotine, nitrogen oxides, and cadmium decline the growth and function of immune cells, like cytokines, T cells, and B cells. Smoking will also worsen viral and bacterial infections, post-surgical infections, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Step-7-

Chronic conditions check-

Chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, and heart disease affect the immune system and increase the risk of infections.

If people with type 2 diabetes won’t manage their blood sugar properly, it might lead to a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that might weaken the body’s defence system.

If you can manage your chronic conditions better, you’ll free help your body fight off infection better. So, make sure you take proper medications, doctor visits, or healthy habits that keep your symptoms low.

Treat your body like a temple. Nourish it, respect it, care it and you will surely cherish the results.

In the last article, we have understood general relativity, special relativity and the brilliant thought process of Albert Einstein that came up with these concepts. In this article, we will learn the concepts of “Dark Matter” and “Dark Energy.” Before we dig in, as we observed all the modern and important concepts of modern physics, came to the existence when the classical laws of physics failed to explain the phenomena that were happening.

Dark Matter: Dark matter is a substance which has hypothetical elements which do not interact with light and cannot be seen. As they cannot be seen, it is called dark matter. In physics terms, It contains particles that do not absorb, reflect, or emit light, so they cannot be detected by electromagnetic radiation.

According to math, 85% of the universe is made of dark matter. If we cannot see it, how do the scientists know that 85% of the universe is made of dark matter? To understand this we need to go back in the history and understand it.

The foundations of dark matter go back to 1600s. When newton presented his theory of gravitation, some astronomers questioned there might be particles that don’t or emit very less light. As there were no proofs, these arguments were not considered serious. In 1933 a Swiss American astronomer named Fritz Zwicky observed that mass of a coma cluster ( a cluster is a group of galaxies) has 400 times more mass than the visible mass through light.

He named it Dunkle Materie (‘dark matter’). According to the basic law of physics, energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, it can be transformed from one form to another form. According to mass equivalence from special relativity, Energy and mass are equivalent or interchangeable. If these are true then what is the 400 times mass that is visible light and general principles of quantum theory? There must be particles which are not visible. Thus came the concept of dark matter.

In 1970s, there came another observation which led to the strong proof for dark matter. Stars move around the center of the galaxy in their specific orbits in their respective speed. Two scientists named  Vera Rubin and Kent Ford discovered that, the objects, stars which are at an edge in a galaxy , move at the same speed to the objects that are closer to the center of galaxy. This violates newtons laws of motion.

There must be some invisible particles which determine this phenomenon and thus came a mathematical proof for Dark matter. NASA used Hubble telescope to find the dark matter and that is the cherry on the top and empirical proof for dark matter. NASA captured many images but the clearest one was in 2017.

Image credit : NASA

 A new observation of gravitationally magnified faint galaxies far in the distance behind a massive cluster of galaxies is shedding new dark on the subject. This image from the Hubble Space Telescope indicates that a huge ring of dark matter likely exists surrounding the center of CL0024+17 that has no normal matter counterpart.

What is visible in the above image, first and foremost, are many spectacular galaxies that are part of CL0024+17 itself, typically appearing tan in colour. Next, a close inspection of the cluster centre shows several unusual and repeated galaxy shapes, typically bluer. These are multiple images of a few distant galaxies, showing that the cluster is a strong gravitational lens. The relatively weak distortions of the many distant, faint blue galaxies all over the image, however, indicate the existence of the dark matter ring. The computationally modelled dark matter ring spans about five million light-years and has been digitally superimposed to the image in diffuse blue.

So far, we have understood the concept of dark matter. Now we will try understanding the concept of Dark Energy.

Dark Energy: It is a type of energy which is responsible for the fast movement of the objects in the universe and therefore the universe. In physics terms, Dark energy is the name given to the force that’s causing the rate of expansion of our universe to accelerate over time, rather than to slow down.

Till now, we don’t know the exact properties of dark energy. This violates the principle of gravity in the universe. According to the properties of gravitational force, the expansion of the universe and the force between two galaxies, stars, planets etc must be constant. But with the help of hubbles telescope and mathematical calculations we found that the expansion of the universe is accelarating.

As we do not know the cause, we named the energy caused for this as dark energy. Till date scientists were not able to determine the form of energy or the properties of it.

If we can study the properties of dark matter and energy, we can have the answers for the questions like, “what was before the big bang?”, “How did the universe originate?” and more important secrets of this mystical universe. Let us hope that day comes very soon.

The year 2020 hit us all by surprise for all the wrong reasons. There is a lot of awareness that is spreading in the world, especially on mental health. This is a very good move considering most of us are staying home and socially not active. It is important that we spread this awareness and help each other out.

There are few norms that generally say it is a bit tough to identify a person suffering from initial stages of depression or trauma, which is right to some extent. The people suffering from depression, anxiety, trauma or any mental health issue communicate very less compared to others and it is tough to understand what is going on with them. So how can we identify these people and try helping them? Let us find out.

To be very honest with you all, I’m not a Psychiatrist or a Psychologist, but I have seen a person very closely suffering from this. As a student of science, I have researched a lot, read a lot of books to help that person. Now I’m sharing the same with you so that you can help anyone in need and try bringing them out of the darkness and show the colors of life.

Before that, I’ll narrate the person’s story to you so that we can debunk it and understand the same. They are a friend of mine and here is the story. To make it easy let us name them John. John is a very active kid and is always fond of paintings. They used to use all types of colours and paint very unique portraits. In 5th grade, they also won a prize for painting.

John is also fond of science. In 7th grade, John did a project on Earth’s ozone layer and won the third price in school. John mind is very active and is always searching for something. Little did john knew that he is about to get trauma in his life. John didn’t write science notes for 2 months in his 6th grade. His teacher made all the class of the boys hit John on the cheeks. Trust me guys this is a real story.

More than the physical pain it was hit on Johns mental health, it first led to embarrassment and then shame. After this, no one in class really talked to John, he was alone and didn’t express much. In 8th grade, a new student in the middle of the year joined John’s class. Let us name them Robert. Robert is a very fat kid and everyone used to bully him. People used to bully John as well so both Robert and John became friends.

You might think wow finally they got each others company now everything must be good, but life is a bitch isn’t it? Robert and John used to hang out all the time and became good buddies. John is always fond of LED lights. He said the same to Robert. Robert one day invited John saying he glued batteries to an old unused glue bottle and connected them to LED’s and made a small light.

John has no idea what is happening with him, he is moving his legs and trying to escape but as Robert is very huge, John is unable to move past him. Robert sat on John and started slapping him. Robert tore down the pants of John and tried inserting his private part in John’s mouth. As it was not successful, Robert slapped him, bet him to pulp and tried raping him.

John somehow tried kicking Robert but was unsuccessful, he somehow managed to punch Robert on the face, kicked him and got out of there. He went home and cried for 3 hours. Then the after-effects of that trauma are what changed his life forever. After this John barely talked to anyone. He developed fears, nightmares, sleeplessness, weight loss, depression and many other things. His social life became a null set.

John now avoids people, communicating with strangers, social gatherings, apologises very frequently, sleeplessness, has very less social connections, don’t want to lose people, has very low self-esteem, he always turns back to check if anyone is attacking him, always checks his watch for the time, cries for every two nights, always fails to express his thoughts and many more psychological implications.

There are other implications such as feeling very emotional for a sad event or news, mood swings, sitting idle for hours, overthinking of scenarios that don’t happen and few others. According to science, this condition is PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder). General symptoms include intrusion, avoidance, alterations in cognition and mood, alterations in arousal and reactivity.

People who suffer from PTSD get misunderstood as they don’t express themselves properly, they are mocked, bashed and even ignored when they are stating an opinion. So what can be done to help people like john if they are around you? To help people like John, we must know how to find people like John.

If your loved one suffering from the above symptoms for a longer duration of time, there is a high chance that the person is suffering from depression or trauma. Mind you sadness is different from depression, sadness will last for few days and the person will rebound to his normal day to day activities a person in depression will suffer for long periods of time and shows above symptoms.

Studies show that depression or trauma spotted early can be cured very efficiently. So if you see anyone around you sad or isolating themselves for a long time, talk to them and seek medical care if needed. In the times like this where people are claustrophobic, let us keep an eye on our loved ones and keep a virtual connection, by a message or a call. By this, we can try spotting them at the early stages, and we can keep them safe and secure.

Links For Reference:
Common reactions to sexual assault: https://www.loyola.edu/department/counseling-center/services/students/concerns/sexual-assault/reactions

PTSD: https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/ptsd/what-is-ptsd

What is true? How can we conclude something to be true and something to be false? Isn’t it ironical, that confirming that something is false, becomes confirming truth about that ‘thing’ to be false! Even if we are not deliberately searching for truth, instinctively we seek the truth. There is always a curiosity in human nature to find facts about almost everything. Am I beautiful? Does she like me? Do I need to improve my skills? We are continually questioning something because of the desire to know. And in the daily life of an average human, we face a lot of questions, and we seek a lot of affirmations. But is there something that we have been asking for a long time and there still is no answer? Yes! The purpose of existence! Why do we exist? That is the ultimate truth of life!

Have you ever wondered, why do we exist the way we do? Did a god make us like this? Or is it all random? No matter if we accept it or reject it, we all are curious to know! And we found a stream for that, dedicated to studying reality, existence, death, life and almost everything; Philosophy! We have made arguments! We brought conclusions, and we also raised questions that were never there before, using Philosophical studies. Many findings from Philosophical studies have been misinterpreted and misused for a long time! Few have accidentally misread the conclusions, and few have taken advantage of them for their benefits.

Philosophical conclusions or the arguments that Philosophers made throughout history, have proved useful to the con men who tell you that they have an ‘ultimate truth’. You can see many people using that term! They say to you that they found it, know it, and they are going to enlighten you by showering it to you. One of the most common ‘ultimate truths’ they pour upon us is about our existence and reality. These con men take advantage of our curiosity to know the meaning of our lives and preach pseudo-philosophical utterances that only put a patch over your void of existential crisis but does not fill the void. This patch is fake, it is like putting a plaster to a broken wall, it did fix it, but not the solution you are seeking.

The ultimate truths they speak are words of comfort that make you sleep at nights. Their sugar-coated words are indeed a bunch of lies. Even they don’t have answers for their very own existence. But they have found their purpose, that is to fool you and encash your belief in their utterances. But regardless of these conmen and confused men, is there a purpose to live, let alone human life, but the entire existence, does it? Well, it depends on what you choose to believe! It has enough space for anything you want to think. If you wish to place a purpose that your existence was meant to save lives and become a super-hero, it is! Because that is what you are telling yourselves!

The conmen are successful in making people believe whatever they tell about the purpose of existence. That is because it is a blank white paper; tabula rasa! The article having an answer about existence is blank! That is, the ultimate truth about the ultimate truth of existence is that it is false and does not exist! To clear the confusion and put it in simple terms, the ultimate truth about existence does not exist. And the fact that there is no ultimate truth becomes the ultimate truth indeed! Because that is what we all want to know ultimately! And that is what we all have to know! That there is no purpose for existence!

 It might sound sad or discouraging to put it like this. So, let us perceive differently. Let us say “The paper that has answer to our existence is blank.” Now, this looks positive than the sentence “Life has neither a purpose nor a meaning to it.” This positive depiction of the absurdity of life, gives space to the one that reads it. The space that it creates is the space that one can use to fill that blank paper. This analogy of a paper encourages one to write their papers and fill it with meaning that they want to give to their lives. And again, it doesn’t necessitate one to write something. The paper is just blank, and you are free to choose to fill out or leave the paper blank! Every individual has this blank paper with them; filling it with some meaning every time they are doing something.

Every person is also free to do whatever they want to do with that sheet. You may create your Ultimate truth, or you can embrace the ultimate truth that there is none! 

In the last article, we have understood the concept of quantum physics, and how it explains the laws of the universe. In this article let us learn the theory of relativity which brought a massive revolution in modern physics.

Before that we need to know how and who came with this idea. Albert Einstein came up with the ideas of theory of relativity. One day when he was working as a patent clerk at Bern, finished his work and boarded a tramp car on his way home. He used to finish his work as soon possible so that he can contemplate the truths of the the universe. In his free time, he used to think of different experiments for the better understanding of the universe.

That day, he devised one experiment on that tramp car which changed modern physics forever. While travelling in the tramp car, Einstein saw a clock tower, and he is moving away from it. He imagined what would happen if the tramp car would move with the speed of light? The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second; he realised if he travelled at that speed, the clock’s hands would appear to be completely frozen. At the same time, he knew that back the clock tower the hands would tick along with normal pace. Time has slowed for Einstein.

This thought blew his mind; he concluded that the faster you move in space, the slower you move through time. His work was heavily influenced by two of the great physicists of all time. First, the “laws of motion by” “Sir Isaac Newton” and second by the “laws of electromagnetism” by “James Clerk Maxwell.” According to the laws of motion, velocities are always relative. For example, imagine a train travelling at 50 kilometres per hour. The speed of the train is 50 Kilometers per hour for someone at rest. It is only 30 kilometres per hour if another train is travelling with respect to this train and in same direction with a speed of 20 kilometers per hour.

This is true for the earth, sun, Milky Way galaxy and other galaxies. According to Maxwell, the speed of an electromagnetic wave(in this case light) is constant, regardless of the observer. If we take Newton’s laws into this, there is a clash, according to newton the velocity and speed are relative but the speed of light is constant regardless of the observer. Thus Einstein proposed his “Special Relativity theory” in 1905.

Special Relativity Theory: There are two postulates of special relativity.

1. The laws of physics take the same form in all inertial frames of reference.
2. As measured in any inertial frame of reference, light is always propagated in space with a definite velocity “c” that is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body. Or: the speed of light in free space has the same value “c” in all inertial frames of reference.

Pictorial representation of Special relativity.


The first postulate says that the laws of physics are the same for the person who is in moving in constant velocity or at rest. If we apply any laws of physics the results will be the same. The second postulate is very explanatory.

Mass–energy equivalence: Mass-energy equivalence states that the total mass of a system may change, although the total energy and momentum remain constant. In simple words,  mass can be converted into energy and visa-versa.

E=mc2

Where E = Energy.
M = Mass.
C = Speed of Light.

Applications of special relativity: There are many applications of some of the important ones are GPS (Global Positioning System), Cathode-ray tubes (Old Television screens), modern computer chips and most important of all, by the concept of “Energy – Mass equivalence” was essential for the development of “nuclear fission” and “nuclear fusion” which are used in all nuclear plants.

So we understood the concept of special relativity, now let us understand the concept of general relativity. Before that, we need to understand the back story of the same.

Again back to Einstein and his brilliant imagination. One day he was observing a window washer on a ladder from his office. He imagined what would happen if the washer fell, for most of us it is a horror story which will never end will. But Einstein thought it differently, he imagined himself in the place of the washer while falling. He didn’t imagine what would happen if he hits the ground but imagined what he would experience while falling.

He realised that gravity was the only force acting on him while he was falling and accelerating towards the ground. Without the wind resistance, he would be free in fall, which is no different from being weightless as the ground is not coming up. This is nothing, but he is falling in space where there is zero gravity. He wanted to connect gravity to his theory of relativity through acceleration.

Einstein imagined a room without windows and it has a weighing scale and checked his weight, it would be constant at any point on the earth. Now he imagined the room is in a spaceship, which is moving upward with a speed of 9.8 meters per second which the speed of acceleration due to gravity on earth. Now, what would happen if he stepped on the scale? The weight should be the same as the space ship is accelerating upwards with the same speed that of acceleration due to gravity but this time it is upwards.

Einstein thought about telling the difference between acceleration and gravity, now he imagined shooting a light or laser beam from one point of the room to the other while the spaceship is moving upwards. He saw that the light is bent while moving from one point to another. The size of the light would be lower compared to the projection point. This is because the room is moving upwards with a speed of 9.8 meters per second. The light beam would appear a bit curved downward.

However if you are on earth, you wont see this phenomena. The projection point and the projected points height would be the same. Einstein thought why is this different as it would the equivalence of gravity. The force is constant while it is upwards or downwards. He thought light must bend under the influence of a gravitational field, but how could this be possible as the light always takes the shortest path. May be the shortest point between two points is a curve?

Imagine earth which is spherical in shape, the surface if the earth is never a straight line, it is always a curve. So may be the gravitation causes the curvature of space somehow. He hypothesized may be the straight line is not the shortest path in space, with the presence of mass and energy space somehow becomes curved. This is again different from Newton’s hypothesis in which space and time are fixed. In Newton’s model, gravity acted within space and time.

Einstein’s theory was gravity emerges when there is an interaction between space and time. This is General Relativity in a nutshell.

General Relativity: The central idea of general relativity is that space and time are two aspects of spacetime. Spacetime is curved when there is matter, energy, and momentum resulting in what we perceive as gravity.

Pictorial representation of general relativity.

Spacetime: Space-time is a mathematical model that joins space and time into a single idea called a continuum.

Pictorial representation of spacetime.

Applications of general relativity: It can explain why planets revolve around in their orbits, why light bends at blackholes, correcting high precision clocks on satellites, gravitational lensing in astronomy, and a large variety of corrected astrophysics calculations.

Today, we are going to talk about everyone’s most favorite topic!
Any guesses there?
Sure, sex is cool but here we are talking about FOOD.
Firstly, let’s take a moment to thank for all the food we have had, have, and would be getting in the near future. Because even the very thought of food makes 90% of the population happy & calm.

But, today we are going to talk about good nutrition. As much as we love junk and unhealthy food that’s exactly what’s going to add up to your bad health and become one of the major reasons for your sufferings in the future.
Did you know?
India is No. 2 among countries with most deaths caused by poor food choices. Yes, that’s right number 2 and not very far from becoming number 1 if we don’t take our health and body seriously.
There’s a very simple logic behind this, you decorate your home with the best of things be it furniture, kitchenware, chandeliers, and what not to make it look the best. And now, how would you feel if someone comes and dirties it all up and throws garbage in every corner of your dream house? It would disgust you and make you angry, wouldn’t it?
So pause there with the anger thought and now apply the same thing for your body, wherein the garbage and dirtiness if being fed to your body (your home) by none other than you, yourself. Yes, that’s right!      
And the poor body has no control of itself to get mad at you for you making it feed all the filth.
So someone’s got to take charge for it; so who’s that going to be?
It’s You! And your body deserves it for it’s your home till the day you lie on the deathbed; so why take it for granted?

It’s not wrong for you to treat & spoil yourself with junk once in a while, but always or very frequently? That’s not the right answer for it’s YOUR body and you have got to take care of it like a baby; who’s shouldn’t be fed with bad food.

Mother Nature has provided us with plenty of delicious as well as nutritive fruits & vegetables to keep us strong and healthy but we still choose junk and unhealthy food over it, why?
It’s true that it’s all in the mind, and you are as strong as you let your mind be. So take the stick and make your mind listen to you rather than listening to it. Have self-control over things that are bad for you; for it’s never too late to start doing something good.

Unhealthy & poor food choices will start poisoning you slowly and you won’t even realize it. Imagine, slowly, and gradually being poisoned by yourself to your own deathbed. There are enough diseases in the world to make you fall sick so why add to it by making yourself the reason for your poor food choices?

“Eating a balanced diet which includes cereals, pulses, vegetables, milk, milk products, fruits, nuts, chicken, fish, and lean meat in appropriate portion sizes is essential. Practicing long and slow eating habits can help in better digestion and improve health and well-being. By cutting down alcohol & foods that are high in saturated and trans-fat can help in avoiding cardiovascular disease. “



It is the first day of my office,
I’m feeling nervous and anxious.
I got in a car and started thinking.
The thoughts are interlinking.

I reached the office, and I’m excited,
As I go in and enter a room, I’m thrilled.
There is an orientation program to attend,
Suddenly my day is very brightened.

That scene reminded me of my college days,
The first day of college it was all a smiley face.
I had to attend an orientation on my first day,
Saw her for the first time, and awe stuck straightaway.

I never believed in angels until I saw her,
She has the charm of all the angels put together.
There may angels, fairies and their kingdoms somewhere,
But the princess of all the kingdoms is sitting right here.

I wanted to talk to her but had no words,
There is music in my heart instead of beats.
I decided to go to her and have a talk,
But with fear, I had no dare to walk.

Everything about her was perfect and beautiful,
Every slightest moment of her was blissful.
The way she flips her hair and the way she smiles,
Anything about her makes my heart go a million miles.

I prayed to all the possible gods for her to be in my class,
When I found her in my class, my happiness has no limits.
The day you missed college my smile would be empty,
The next day when I see you again, my joy would be plenty.

I always imagined both of us going to fairyland,
I would see you in the eyes and ask never to leave my hand.
All the fairies would sing songs and dance around us,
And I would see your smile and the sight would be auspicious.

I may have never expressed my feelings for her,
But every moment I wanted us to be together.
At the farewell, the other might miss college,
For me, to live without seeing you is out of my knowledge.

“I used to like me because I loved you, and will continue to love you till I get to like me.”

Ringing the bell of my love island,

I walked with excitement in my heart,

Into the room of destiny dazzled in colours,

The heart is beating as if it would fall out,

Loud and loud, to find that one in the crowd,

Shimmering like sequin, shining like star,

Like the wonderland that no one saw,

Eyes are searching for the love of life,

There he is, My dream boy! Now I am all flowers,

Like the water that is frozen in the dark cloud,

A wish to hold your hand fearless and open,

You and I, I know, will make a heaven,

Nonetheless of the fact that the world envies us,

These people are just some lonely souls,

Oh, my man! Don’t you worry these guys,

Straight in the gender, not in the thoughts,

Looking as if they have never seen gays,

With pride, I ask you today before the magic fades,

“Will you be my husband and allow me to be yours?”

Hey pals, so still stuck at a point where you are being judged? or finding it hard to place yourselves at a point in life? No worries, we are here to brighten up your day. Don’t worry, we are not selling any products for you, neither asking time if you have time for the Lord, our saviour “Cthulhu“. In the following article, let me help you understand what you did wrong in life. So that you would finally get it.

Having An Opinion:
What? You had an opinion on something? How dare you? I mean don’t you understand this, you should not have an opinion on something. Your research may be correct, you might actually state facts but you should not have an opinion. Did you use your education and resources to have an opinion on something? How condescending! But to save us from this we always have people who correct us by their opinions, not facts. How lucky we are! Next time don’t give them work. Don’t have opinions.

Standing Up When You Get Bullied Or Trolled:
Do you see how silly it sounds? Standing up for yourselves? Come on, who do you think you are? They are trolling you and having fun, let them enjoy, why are you stopping it? I mean, you must be fun at parties. It may hurt, but who cares? The others are having fun don’t stop it. Get bullied, let people enjoy when you mentally breakdown and cry. You are getting trolled and getting memes being made on you? Get trolled, see people are laughing so must take it. You are not special okay!

Stating A Rational Thought:
Did you state a rational thought on someone’s belief? What the hell is wrong with you? Are you dumb? Why don’t you understand this? You think you are rational and therefore they are facts, huh? Don’t you know that loud voices matter most instead of a fact? But luckily, even for this, we have people who cuss even our families and us, so that we don’t state facts next time. I’m feeling privileged!

Sharing Passions With Your Family:
You asked your family members that you have a passion and want to follow it? Oh, my sweet summer child! Did you have a concussion or an aneurism? You have a passion and want to follow it? Oh gosh! You are completely wasted! Who have passions? Only successful people! How did they become successful? By following their passion! Don’t you think and understand this? Luckily even here we have family who brings our self-esteem and confidence down by saying things like “You are a disgrace to this family” ” I wish you weren’t born.” So that we don’t have demonic possessions like “passion.”

Setting Your Personal Life Goals Based On Your Strengths:
That is the dumbest thing you can do! Setting goals based on your strengths? What is wrong with you? Did you use your mind to think? Are you doing drugs or what? How foolish of you? You yourself decide when you marry, have kids, where to work and what to do? Don’t you have a fear of being judged for minding your own business? If you do everything on our own, what is the need for relatives? And who gave you the right to think about yourselves. Don’t do this; let others decide what you do.

Feeling Sad When You Are Backstabbed. Specially In Work Place:
You are sad when your colleague backstabs you and takes a promotion? I mean you believe you deserve a promotion? Come on, come back to reality! Your colleague outsmarted you. How stupid of you to trust them? You revolted against them when you found this? Oh man, you never see it do you? They just used you and thrown you out like a tissue. They might say “Don’t worry God will take care of everything.” You might get thoughts like “Around 1.08 million people died of corona and he couldn’t save them, why would he give a rats ass on a guy who got betrayed at a workplace?” That is a question for a different day. Don’t get thoughts like this, just work like a slave and try to be a slave master next time.

In the end, if you don’t follow the above steps, you will have a complete life. Yes one more important thing, if anything wrong happens to you without you doing anything, raise your hand and say “It is my fault.” That is the cherry on the top! Congratulations! You finally got it!

Indian literature is something I have always adored from the culture of India. Today, I am going to give you a brief insight into Indian literature, which is not exclusively known all over the world. But it is always appreciated and loved by every person who knows about it.

Literature-

The beauty of Indian tradition is that it is one of the oldest kinds of literature in the world. It is primarily written and essentially oral format literature.

Usually, the language was used to compose songs, recite poems and later was slowly converted as a written form. 

One among such kinds of literature is Sanskrit literature which is very close to India’s heart. It later has been used to create many languages.

Sanskrit-

Using Sanskrit as a base, India has officially recognised 22 languages. Many pieces of literature have been produced in these languages over many years.

In Indian culture, Hindu literary traditions have been dominant due to its large part of occupance in the literary work. The Vedas, which are considered a sacred form of knowledge, is the most privileged part of Indian literature. 

There are many other works like the Hindu epics – Ramayana and Mahabharata, treatises like Vaastu Shastra for architecture and town planning, and Arthashastra for political sciences. Works like the Vedas, Upanishads, and Manusmriti which are a part of Hindu holy texts are still used by many people in various parts of the world. 

Some other literary works like the Tamil literature has a rich literary tradition going back to 2000 years. It is highly known for its poetries in epics, the philosophy and the secular forms.

A few other literary works that made the golden era of Indian literature are ‘Mricchakatika’ by Shudraka, ‘Abhijanam Shakuntalam’ and ‘Meghdoot’ by Kalidasa, ‘Ratnavali’ by Sri Harsha and ‘Svapna Vasavadattam’ by Bhaasa. 

Chanakya’s ‘Arthashastra’ and Vatsyayana’s ‘Kamasutra’ have also been mentioned in academics. Arthashastra has been taken as a base for the economic framework of India.

Indian literature has its traces in the vernacular languages of the northern Indian stories of Krishna and Rama like religious love poems written in Maithili (eastern Hindi of Bihar) and 12th-century poems by Jaydev, called the ‘Gitagovinda’.

A huge part of literature was produced in the form of personal devotion to a god especially addressed to Rama (who is considered as an avatar of Vishnu, the God). The Avadhi (eastern Hindi) works of a writer named Tulsi Das, and his ‘Ramcharitmanas’ includes this type of work. 

In the early stages, many people like gurus (founders of the Sikh religion) like Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Arjun Dev, composed bhakti hymns in the devotion of their deities. 

My personal favourite is the Rajasthani princess and poet Mira Bai who in the 16th century, expressed her love and devotion in lyric verses to the lord Krishna in an exceptional manner. A Gujarati poet named Narsimh Mehta also did similar work.

Hindi-

It started as religious and philosophical poetry in medieval periods in the form of dialects like Avadhi and Brij. Writers like Kabir and Tulsidas are the most famous figures from this period. In modern times, the Khadi dialect was used more which lead to the creation of a variety of literature in Sanskrit.

The first prose written in Hindi was Chandrakanta, a prose written by Devaki Nandan Khatri. Munshi Premchand, a Hindi novelist, Maithili Sharan Gupt, Jaishankar Prasad, Sumitranandan Pant, Mahadevi Varma, and Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’ are the most famous figures from this period.

In the recent 150 years, many writers have contributed to the development of modern Indian literature. Rabindranath Tagore, a writer from Bengal, was the first Indian to win the Nobel Prize for literature (Gitanjali) in the year 1913.

English literature-

With the influence of Western ideologies and the introduction of the printing press in the British era, a literary revolution occurred. The writers wrote mostly for supporting the cause of freedom struggle and for removing the existing social evils. 

The great examples of the English literature in India are Ram Mohan Roy and Swami Vivekananda. Ram Mohan Roy’s campaign to introduce scientific education in India and Swami Vivekananda’s works contributed to a great part of English literature.

Several other writers like R.K. Narayan, who wrote novels and tales of the village in southern India like ‘Swami and Friends’ and Mulk Raj Anand, who wrote novels like ‘Untouchable’ (1935) and ‘Coolie’ (1936), became famous in the modern period of India. 

Among the younger authors, Anita Desai, who wrote famous novels like ‘Clear Light of Day’ (1980) and ‘In Custody’ became famous.

Novelists/ writers like Arun Kolatkar and R. Parthasarathy, Toru Dutt, Sarojini Naidu, Aurobindo, Dom Moraes, P. Lal, A.K. Ramanujan, Kamala Das, Raja Rao, Khushwant Singh, Salman Rushdie, K.R. Sreenivasan Iyengar, G.V. Desani, M. Ananthanarayanan, Nlissim E Zekiel, Bhadani Bhattacharya, Manohar Malgonkar, Arun Joshi, Kamala Markandaya, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Nayantara Sahgal, O.V. Vijayan, and M.K. Naik are also well-known for their works.

Among the latest writers are Sashi Tharoor (‘Show Business’), Allan Sealy (‘The Trotter-Nama’), Amitav Ghosh (‘Circle of Reason’, ‘Shadow Lines’), Vikram Seth (‘A Suitable Boy’), Upamanyu Chatterjee (‘English August’), Vikram Chandra (‘Red Earth and Pouring Rain’) and Upamanyu Chatterjee (‘English August’).

Women authors like Arundhati Roy, Booker Prize Winner for ‘God of Small Things’, Jhumpa Lahiri, 2000 Pulitzer Prize winner in Fiction, Shobha De, etc. have taken a boom in recent times of the literature.

You can find more about Indian literature here- http://factsanddetails.com/india/Arts_Culture_Media_Sports/sub7_5a/entry-4236.html

It started with a tweet of a British Professor, Edward Anderson. We all might be familiar with this issue; people who use social media at least. Replying to a tweet of Zomato which asked people to name a food that they don’t like and many people yet love it. Edward Anderson, using his twitter account, retweeted the tweet saying that he finds Idly as the most boring thing in the world. And the tweets that followed created this Idly affair.

Edward Anderson’s tweet got viral because of the replies that Indians gave to him. It is evident that Indians got offended by this British tweet. Indians are quick at their feet when someone talks about India, and that too when someone not from India does that. After spamming Edward Anderson with curse words and calling him an idiot and tasteless person, I present this pragmatic question : what practical difference did it make? Did Edward Anderson’s taste buds get a firmware update to love Idlis?

His reply to the enraged tweets.

After clapping hands to people who spammed him and feeling proud for defending Idly, what did we achieve? Why is no one asking this question? As a South-Indian, I grew up eating Idly more than half of my life. And I have met numerous people who found Idly boring, and they were not Brits, they were my classmates, friends and acquaintances who were very much Indian. So let us bash everyone who hates Idly? I have even met many Indians who told me that they hate the very infamous Dosa! Now shall we go to their house and ask them to leave India?

It is up to common knowledge that likings and dislikings are subjective, which vary upon each person. Not every Indian loves Idly, let alone foreigners. From my experience, I know that most of the Americans love CoffeeCoffee, and the English are obsessed with their Tea. The famous singer, Sting even has a lyric about it in his song, Englishman in New York. The first line of that song is “I don’t drink Coffee, only Tea my dear…” Many Americans loved that song. People didn’t make videos on Sting dissing him that Coffee is tastier than Tea because we know that he was singing a song about his ‘Englishness’.

Similarly, If I replied to Zomato’s tweet by saying that I find Mac N Cheese boring and I don’t know why people love it, I don’t think I would go Viral, and no one would call me tasteless. How insecure we are to react upon a person’s opinion! If we know that Idly and a Hot sambar is what we love to eat, why prove it to someone who doesn’t? Why the intolerance towards someone’s opinion just because they are not Indian? It is a basic thing to understand that everyone in the world can not love what we love. 

If we assume that what we love is the only beautiful thing in the world and call the other people with other interests as ‘tasteless’, how immature must we be? How insecure and intolerant must we be to react and try to prove someone that the object we love is superior to their interests and they are idiots. It just means that we won’t let any other opinion in our ears and we want to hear what we love in the mouths of all the world. Not only is that thought childish, but it is also erroneous and dogmatic!

Can we eat Mac N cheese for breakfast? Can the Brits ever embrace Coffee? Can the South-Indians eat only Roti for dinner? These are questions we can not answer because to answer that we need to study every one of those individuals and form a data analysis and interpretation to check the most popular opinion. And in the end, the pragmatic question again, what practical difference would that make? Would you stop eating Dosa because someone told you they find it boring? If not, why would you argue with them that you love it? They never will. Why don’t you enjoy what you love by letting other people love and hate what they love and hate?

If, a word we use very often;
To express the regret of a situation
To repent on any given condition
But my dear,
Pause for a minute;
For life is too timid
To blame it on the if’s and but’s
When you got your gut to trust.

No matter how old you are
It’s true that age is just a number.
For losing is nothing bad
But not trying & giving in
Would just be a reason for if’s to add.
So stop and take a deep breath;
For you don’t know how far/near is the dance of death;
So shift, control & reset.

Be proud of your decision
Embrace the change;
For taking risks would only bring growth & range.
Let your emotions speak
Take the leap of faith
Just don’t let there be any hate.
Stand tall for you are one of a kind
& only you can get your peace of mind.

Marry the love of your life
Take that solo trip you always desired
Quit that job; from the one, you always wanted to be fired
And follow your passion & then get hired.
Let them if’s and but’s be bygone
For If you don’t follow your mind & heart;
Are you even living your life or
A life someone has bought?

We have seen in many movies, or web-series a hacker is wearing hoodies, typing fast on a computer with random codes appearing in different colours, and a lot of enthusiasm and can-do attitude on actors faces. But in real life do they look in the same way? Do they keep typing that fast to hack anything? Let us find out.

Starting with the appearance, a hacker need not wear a hoodie, have a dark make up etc. They look like normal people with normal clothes and stuff. They don’t live dark rooms or remain isolated and move freely in society and have regular interactions with people.

Coming to the actual hacking, you need not type lines and lines of codes to hack anything. The process is not that complicated, and there are pre-built software’s that do most of the job. To understand more on this we need to know how is hacking done actually.

Before that, we need to know what are the types of hackers. Not all hackers are bad guys; some hackers protect many businesses from hacking and malware attacks. Primarily there are three types of hackers.

  1. Black Hat Hackers.
  2. White Hat Hackers.
  3. Grey Hat hackers.
  1. Black Hat Hackers: These are bad guys in the hacking world, they enter the systems without authorization. They introduce malicious files and destroy the system files. They are criminals, they steal the data, lock your systems, infect it and demand money to release it. The money is generally digital currency like bitcoin. They do this for financial gains or fun. The black hat hackers are a threat to data security in the world.
  2. White Hat Hackers: These are certified hackers, who work for the government and other business organisations. They do testing of the data and find loopholes and act as defenders to protect the data from black hat hackers. Therefore, they can be considered as the opposite of black hat hackers. They are also known as “Ethical hackers” or “Cybersecurity experts.”
  3. Grey Hat Hackers: These fall between black hat and white hat hackers. Generally, grey hat hackers find the system vulnerabilities and report it to the system administrator. Usually, they ask a small fee to fix it. The system administrator might accept or report it. If reported, they come under the black hat because they entered the system without the permission of the administrator.

We have learnt the primary type of hackers and their roles, now let us try to learn the type of hacking techniques generally used. There are 9 of them.

  1. Bait & Switch: As the name suggests, hackers use some deal price or a widget of a browser widget to hack. When you click on these links, it will redirect to another website which has a booby trap. When you enter that website and download anything or enter your details, they will be hacked.
  2.  Cookie Theft: Cookies theft mainly happens when we use unverified browser widgets. Cookies have a lot of information about internet footprint and usage. Cookies are plain or encrypted based on the website; secure websites use encrypted cookies for data privacy. When the widget is the booby trap, it scans cookies and sends it to the attacker.
  3.  Denial of Service/Distributed Denial of Service (DoS/DDoS): This is a very classic technique to bring down systems or websites. The hackers use bots as traffic and hit a website with that; the traffic is overwhelming that it makes the website inoperable. Therefore, this exposes a vulnerability on the website, and the hackers can infect it with malicious files.
  4. Eavesdropping: This is a technique used by hackers to hack a conversation between two parties and get as much information as possible. Hackers use tools to hack messages, calls or any digital conversation and get as much information as possible to hack.
  5.  Keylogging: The hackers install a software or a tool on the system, the tool records everything you type using your keyboard, and the information is sent to the hacker. Therefore, the hacker gets all information you type this can include passwords and other important stuff. Thus, they have all the information they need to hack.
  6. Malware: The hackers use some sort of software to introduce malware into your system. For example, you might have seen many a download links on a few websites. If you accidentally click on the wrong link, a software which is infected will be downloaded and the hackers get access to your system.
  7. Phishing: This attack uses disguised email as a weapon. The goal is to trick the email recipient into believing that the message is something they want or need. For example, you might receive an email notification that it is your bank and they want you to log in. As soon as you open the link it looks that the website is of your bank. Once you enter your login information, it directly goes to the hacker and your bank account is hacked.
  8. Watering Hole and WAP Attacks: In this, the hacker uses an open WIFI connection to lure in the users, as soon as you connect and start using it, the entire internet session you have used will be with the hacker.
  9. “Man in the Middle” (or “MITM”) Attack: It is a bit similar to eavesdropping, but in this technique the hackers have an option to be the middle man between the sender and receiver. Therefore the hacker can modify or even the destroy the data, this attack happens when we use a unauthenticated website for communications.

We have learnt the types of hackers and methods they use to hack. Now let us learn on how to save ourselves from cyberattacks.You can follow these steps to save yourselves from cyberattacks.

  • Never use or give your information on an unsecured website.
  • Never open malicious emails.
  • Don’t download malicious software’s.
  • Never share your passwords via digital medium unless it is an emergency.
  • Never connect to public open WI-FI.
  • Don’t log in on an unsecured website.
  • Never use non-secure widgets.
  • Update your system and servers regularly as the developers release patches to defend against attacks.

If we follow the above steps we are very safe from being attacked or infected from any malware.

Shining eyes, beautiful heart, there she was,

With skin muddy and dress tidy walking towards me,

Pit in her stomach and dirt in her nails,

Yet all I could see was those shining eyes,

With will and wish in her, she asked me something,

I could have given her what she needed,

I could have even given hunger a small pause,

But what I thought was to give her better,

Too her somewhere that was close to my heart,

A place which nurtured and made me strong,

Place filled with people, love, empathy, and strength,

She held my hand tight and said I am afraid,

I showed her one woman with a wide smile,

That woman opened her hands for this girl,

Come here! We are all here for each other, together,

See, this is your class and here is your uniform,

That was the moment, my soul relaxed,

She was happy and those shining eyes started crying,

I could happily rest in peace now, 100th girl to join our school,

Nothing is a bigger work than educating someone,

Giving them a platform to stand for themselves,

To walk fearless and wear a sense of dignity,

Dignity of not money but of the power to live,

To chose a life they have always dreamt of,

From the life I have lived and people I walked through,

It is you who can make your life beautiful,

Charity be a thing with a word substituted as help,

Will I walk in right lane, money and food won’t decide,

Right education can sculpt a persons’ life,

The shape it never seen, the shape of heights,

To the hall of less misery, the hall of future,

Education is much more than what it looks,

A beautiful energy that builds you high,

A drive that takes to the heights of sky.

Vincent Van Gogh grew curious towards butterflies and moths between 1889 and 1890. He liked the metaphorical representation of human transformation through the Metamorphosis of insects, and especially Moths and Butterflies. When he was drawing such transforming creatures, he found this beautiful Moth. He described this moth as ‘Death’s Head Moth’ to his brother in his letter. Also in this letter, Van Gogh said he wouldn’t like to draw it because to draw it, he has to kill such a beautiful creature. It did take him a lot of thinking, but in the end he drew this Great Peacock Moth and added to the collection of his Butterfly Series. The thing that made Van Gogh curious was the shape this Moth carried on its back. It looks like a human skull. And the colors of it; dark greens and grays; it looked like death to Van Gogh.

The reason behind his interest in butterflies, as we stated earlier was his metaphorical interpretation towards human transformation. Van Gogh believed that humans have the capacity to transform; not physically, but mentally. He wanted to symbolize this characteristic of transformation by pressing on to the concept of Butterfly and Moth metamorphosis. He used his butterfly series to symbolize hope and transformation in humans. He wondered about the possibilities present in the universe when he started drawing butterflies. He used to think about the prostitutes in brothels that he used to meet when he thinks of metamorphosis. He talked about hope referring to prostitutes and butterflies. “Like the caterpillar transforms into a beautiful butterfly, imagining the various possibilities in the world, what may these prostitutes become in the future?” he wrote in a letter to his friend.

The Metamorphosis

Crawling on the green leaves,
I saw the kids joyously jumping and playing with the butterflies.
Looking at all the colorful cousins of mine, 
I decided to be the one with most of the colors on me.

Every time I chew on the leaf,
My only thought is to progress.
To progress enough,
For me to fly high, with the wings of my own.

Crawling inch by inch and eating all the leaf,
I shed my skin in the hope of gaining new.
Each time I shed my skin,
I think the time has come.

But each time a new skin comes,
The more disappointed I become.
The pressure on me is un-imaginable.
The stress to be the best.

Have no thoughts of becoming something else,
Have no plans of what to do next either.
But my goal was just to thrive.
To flap my wings and make people smile.

Saw my friends shedding their final skin.
Saw them build a nest,
Saw them break it out,
And saw them fly away.

Each day passes,
I become more sad.
Is this my final form?
Can I not transform?

But thinking about it made me hate,
Hate the thought of not transforming.
Swallowing the grudge that I carry,
I started despising the colorful winged creatures.

Began to wonder my unique nature,
Began to observe my difference.
By now there is no confusion,
It is evident that I am different from those who crawled with me.

Somewhere inside,
Even when I don’t want to accept,
I know that I am not one of them,
That I can never be a butterfly.

Days have passed,
And the pressure increased too.
Shed my final skin,
Built my own shell.

Curious were the kids,
To see what color that I would turn.
But I don’t wonder anymore,
That I already know that I’m different.

Days passed and changes began.
I don’t like myself anymore.
The darkness sucked me in,
Into a big void.
And soon it became me, the void.

I tore the shell and came out.
Shocked were the kids but I don’t care.
I heard a cry instead of a laugh.
My reflections didn’t look colorful.

But I knew it long back,
That I will turn up gray.
I don't want to cry,
Because not my mistake.

Being a butterfly,
Would be a mistake.
For I was never one with those color winged things,
I have always been the Great Gray Moth!

Mistake was mine,
To dream of being them.
But no matter what you think I’m,
This is my Metamorphosis.

This is my tribute to the thought of Metamorphosis of Van Gogh. For him it was hope, and for me it is change. Change that you have when you finally knew yourself; the true yourself!

In the last article, we have learnt the closest theory to the theory of everything, which is “String Theory.” In this article, let us try to understand Quantum physics.

Quantum Physics: Quantum physics is the study of matter and energy at its most fundamental level. The basic story of everything around us and including us are elementary particles. So in simple terms, quantum physics is the study of everything in the universe. It explains how everything works in the universe.

Pictorial representation of quantum physics.

Quantum physics and quantum mechanics are similar; the term “mechanics” indicates doing calculations. So how did the idea of quantum mechanics come to existence? To understand that we should know the concepts of electromagnetism. 

Electromagnetism: At the subatomic level, electromagnetism is defined as the force between electrically charged particles. It is the fundamental reason electrons bound to the nucleus and responsible for the complete structure of the atom.

Electromagnetic force: It is is a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. It acts between charged particles and is the combination of all magnetic and electrical forces. It can be attractive or repulsive.

Electromagnetic waves: These are the waves generated when an electric field comes in contact with the magnetic field. These are the combination of oscillating electric and magnetic fields.

In 1900, a group of bulb manufacturers came to Max Planck to know how to make their bulbs more efficient and take less electricity. He conducted a few experiments and was shocked by the results. According to classical laws of physics, the energy emitted by a body is continuous, but when he observed the energy emitted by the light bulbs, it was discrete. So the basis of all quantum physics, the “Planck’s Law” was born.

Black Body:   A blackbody is an object that absorbs all the radiation falling on it. An object that absorbs all the radiation can also emit all radiation. Therefore, a blackbody will radiate maximum energy when heated to a given temperature. The energy was not continuous, so Planck came up with the “Planks Quantum Theory” Or “Planck’s Law.”

Black body graph.

Planck’s Quantum Theory: Planks Quantum Theory says that energy of electromagnetic radiation is transferred in terms of energy bundles, these bundles are called “Quantum” or “Quanta” can also be called as “Photons.” The energy of each photon is directly proportional to the frequency of electromagnetic radiation.

It was a revolution in the field of physics, Planck got Nobel prize for the same in 1918. However, this theory was limited to the black body. In 1913 “Niels Bohr” came up with his atomic model which paved the way for quantum theory to the atomic level. According to his atomic model, energy is transferred only in specific, well-defined quantities. Electrons should move around the nucleus but only in prescribed orbits. When jumping from one orbit to another with lower energy, a light quantum is emitted. Bohr’s theory could explain why atoms emitted light in fixed wavelengths. The modern shape of quantum physics was given by “Albert Einstein” with his “Photo-Electric Effect.”

Photo Electric Effect:  It is a phenomenon in which, electrons are emitted from a metal surface when light is incident on it. In physics terms, electrically charged particles are discharged from or within a material when it absorbs electromagnetic radiation. In this, Einstein used the principle of packet energy called quanta and proved the quantum physics existence on materials absorbing light.

Pictorial representation of photo electric effect.

The phenomena of Quantum Physics:

Wave-Particle Duality: Imagine subatomic particles as balls bouncing around, but sometimes we have to imagine them as spread-out waves and now consider them doing both, yes it is a bit hard to imagine. Try painting this picture. You took a subatomic particle and increased its sizes to that of a stone. You have thrown that into a small water body. What do we observe? Ripples on the surface, which are nothing but waves. Now Imagine one of the waves has hit a stick on the way, and all the waves disappear. Now your stone sized subatomic particle pops up from that the point of the stick. It is strange, but yeah that is how subatomic particles exhibit the properties of a wave and a particle. 

Pictorial representation of wave-particle duality.

Quantum Tunneling: Now imagine you have a football and kicking it against the wall, it keeps coming back, and you continue this for some time. Suddenly, the football without smashing or interacting with the wall passed through the wall and came out on the other side and moving away. Yes, this crazy! But this is what happens at the subatomic level. Quantum tunnelling is an important reason why we exist. Inside the sun as we know emits light by nuclear fusion in which two hydrogen atoms come together, and the protons in their nucleus will bounce off each other. If there were no quantum tunnelling, even the nuclei and the hydrogen atoms would bounce of each other, and there would be nuclear fusion. For fusion to happen, they quantum tunnel through each other, giving us the sunlight and without sunlight, there is no existence of life form. 

Pictorial representation of quantum tunneling.

Superposition: Imagine a ballet dancer doing a pirouette, yeah it is lovely same is quantum physics, now imagine a ballet dancer doing an anti-clock pirouette, yes it is hard now comes the fun part. Imagine a ballet dancer doing the clockwise and anti-clockwise pirouettes at the same time. Yes, it is tough to imagine, but that is the concept of superposition. When we got to get a scan under the MRI machine, the machine turns the hydrogen atoms in our body in both ways so that the doctors can see inside the body. 

Pictorial Representation of Super position.

It is tough to imagine these like two spins at the same time, tunnelling etc., But we can describe it properly using mathematics. The applications of quantum physics are very vast and very useful. As said above the MRI machine is one of them. By understanding the properties of silicon, we designed silicon chips which are the building blocks of computers and its technology. Not only these but they helped us build x rays, lasers, holography, the modern-day periodic table, fluorescence materials and many more important technologies that we see today. 

In short, without the understanding and usage of quantum physics, we would never be living this lifestyle, and we would be backward by at least 100 years.