In the last article, we have understood the concept of antimatter and its applications. In this article, let us know the concept of black holes.
Blackhole: In simple terms, we can define blackhole as space which has a powerful gravitational force. So strong that even light can’t escape it. In physics terms, A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing, no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.
Black holes are formed when dying star implodes itself at the centre and creates a “supernova”. A supernova is a star that increases significantly in brightness because of a catastrophic explosion that expels most of its mass. As even light cant escape black hole, black holes are not visible to the naked eye.
There are two main parts of a black hole, the event horizon and singularity. Let us try to understand them.
- Event Horizon: It is the boundary surrounding the region of space of a black hole from which nothing (not even light) can escape.
- Singularity: In the heart of a black hole is a gravitational singularity, a one-dimensional point which holds a huge mass in an infinitely tiny space. The density and gravity become infinite and spacetime curves infinitely. The laws of physics as we know them to cease to operate.
If we fall inside a black hole, we don’t get sucked in like a vacuum cleaner. If we fall inside, we get stretched vertically and compressed horizontally. We are stretched to an extent where you become hot stram of plasma. As gravity acts like a million times more than the standard gravity, your body becomes a massive massacre. But for the nth zeptosecond you are in the black hole, you can see the universe in fast-forward like looking into the future.
The sun of our solar system cannot be turned into a black hole as it is not massive enough to explode. But hypothetically if it turns, there will be no effect of planets as the gravitational force in the solar system would be the same. But we will freeze to death due to lack of sunlight. Let us understand the history of the black hole.
History Of Black Hole: Albert Einstein first predicted the existence of black holes in 1916, with his general theory of relativity. The term “black hole” was coined many years later in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler. After decades of black holes being known only as theoretical objects, the first physical black hole ever discovered was spotted in 1971.
In 2017, using eight telescopes known as “Event Horizon Telescopes,” the first image of the black hole was captured.
Applications Of Blackhole:
- Black Holes gives us a way of studying abstract concepts like gravity and general relativity, magnetic field and many properties of these concepts.
- A supermassive black hole is theorized to be at the centre of every galaxy, implying it is necessary for the existence of a galaxy.
- It explains the concept of Tidal Forces.
- It accounts for a significant amount of mass in the universe.
- A moving or spinning black hole can hypothetically create a wormhole, a way of transitioning across space faster than light. It is hoped that in the future some means of transport can be founded to help us travel in these portals, which may lay the base for the search of extraterrestrial beings and uncommon minerals and elements.